文章來源:未知 文章作者:enread 發布時間:2020-05-06 09:32 字體: [ ]  進入論壇
Loneliness is bad for your health—certainly as bad as being obese1, and possibly as bad as being a moderate smoker2.So, in these days of plague, when enforced solitude3 is the order of the day in many places, how to stop solitude turning into loneliness is a pressing medical question. One part of the answer is to try to understand the physiology4 of the change. And that has, for the past few years, been the objective of Steven Cole of the University of California, Los Angeles.
Dr Cole began his work with a study he published in 2015, in collaboration5 with John Cacioppo of the University of Chicago.
The pair led a team of psychologists, neuroscientists and immunologists who found that the pattern in people's blood of immune cells called myeloid cells is notably6 different in those who score as "very lonely" on loneliness tests compared with those who do not.
Lonely people have unusually low numbers of a type of myeloid cell that generates what are known as interferon responses, which hamper7 viral replication.
This makes them particularly vulnerable to viral infections. They also have an abundance of a second type of myeloid cell,one that promotes the activity of genes8 which drive inflammation— and it has been known for years that those who feel lonely experience more inflammation than those who do not.
These correlations9 are intriguing10, but do not explain which comes first, the loneliness or the myeloid response.
Dr Cole and Dr Cacioppo addressed that question by repeatedly measuring perceptions of social isolation11 in individual volunteers,while simultaneously12 tracking, from blood samples, their gene-expression patterns and other changes in their physiology.
They found that, initially13, volunteers' feelings of isolation coincided with an increase in their inflammation genes' activity and a concomitant increase in the circulation of immature14 immune cells, called monocytes, that are involved in inflammation— and which are also known to travel into the brain and promote anxiety.
They noted15, too, increased levels in the brain of signalling molecules16 associated with both inflammation and behaviours such as social withdrawal17, feelings of suspicion towards the outside world and a tendency to act more defensively by making decisions that involve few risks.
That, of course, promotes further feelings of loneliness. Which, in turn, trigger a further myeloid response. And so on.
It seems, therefore, that though loneliness starts with solitude, it can quickly take on a physiological18 life of its own.
Dr Cole thus worries that the enforced isolation, brought about by current circumstances, of those who are already living alone may create in many people a state of chronic19 loneliness that is difficult to escape from when things start returning to normal.


1 obese uvIya     
  • The old man is really obese,it can't be healthy.那位老人確實過于肥胖了,不能算是健康。
  • Being obese and lazy is dangerous to health.又胖又懶危害健康。
2 smoker GiqzKx     
  • His wife dislikes him to be a smoker.他妻子不喜歡他當煙民。
  • He is a moderate smoker.他是一個有節制的煙民。
3 solitude xF9yw     
n. 孤獨; 獨居,荒僻之地,幽靜的地方
  • People need a chance to reflect on spiritual matters in solitude. 人們需要獨處的機會來反思精神上的事情。
  • They searched for a place where they could live in solitude. 他們尋找一個可以過隱居生活的地方。
4 physiology uAfyL     
  • He bought a book about physiology.他買了一本生理學方面的書。
  • He was awarded the Nobel Prize for achievements in physiology.他因生理學方面的建樹而被授予諾貝爾獎。
5 collaboration bW7yD     
  • The two companies are working in close collaboration each other.這兩家公司密切合作。
  • He was shot for collaboration with the enemy.他因通敵而被槍斃了。
6 notably 1HEx9     
  • Many students were absent,notably the monitor.許多學生缺席,特別是連班長也沒來。
  • A notably short,silver-haired man,he plays basketball with his staff several times a week.他個子明顯較為矮小,一頭銀發,每周都會和他的員工一起打幾次籃球。
7 hamper oyGyk     
  • There are some apples in a picnic hamper.在野餐用的大籃子里有許多蘋果。
  • The emergence of such problems seriously hamper the development of enterprises.這些問題的出現嚴重阻礙了企業的發展。
8 genes 01914f8eac35d7e14afa065217edd8c0     
n.基因( gene的名詞復數 )
  • You have good genes from your parents, so you should live a long time. 你從父母那兒獲得優良的基因,所以能夠活得很長。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • Differences will help to reveal the functions of the genes. 它們間的差異將會幫助我們揭開基因多種功能。 來自英漢非文學 - 生命科學 - 生物技術的世紀
9 correlations 4a9b6fe1ddc2671881c9aa3d6cc07e8e     
相互的關系( correlation的名詞復數 )
  • One would expect strong and positive correlations between both complexes. 人們往往以為這兩個綜合體之間有緊密的正相關。
  • The correlations are of unequal value. 這些對應聯系的價值并不相同。
10 intriguing vqyzM1     
  • These discoveries raise intriguing questions. 這些發現帶來了非常有趣的問題。
  • It all sounds very intriguing. 這些聽起來都很有趣。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
11 isolation 7qMzTS     
  • The millionaire lived in complete isolation from the outside world.這位富翁過著與世隔絕的生活。
  • He retired and lived in relative isolation.他退休后,生活比較孤寂。
12 simultaneously 4iBz1o     
  • The radar beam can track a number of targets almost simultaneously.雷達波幾乎可以同時追著多個目標。
  • The Windows allow a computer user to execute multiple programs simultaneously.Windows允許計算機用戶同時運行多個程序。
13 initially 273xZ     
  • The ban was initially opposed by the US.這一禁令首先遭到美國的反對。
  • Feathers initially developed from insect scales.羽毛最初由昆蟲的翅瓣演化而來。
14 immature Saaxj     
  • Tony seemed very shallow and immature.托尼看起來好像很膚淺,不夠成熟。
  • The birds were in immature plumage.這些鳥兒羽翅未全。
15 noted 5n4zXc     
  • The local hotel is noted for its good table.當地的那家酒店以餐食精美而著稱。
  • Jim is noted for arriving late for work.吉姆上班遲到出了名。
16 molecules 187c25e49d45ad10b2f266c1fa7a8d49     
分子( molecule的名詞復數 )
  • The structure of molecules can be seen under an electron microscope. 分子的結構可在電子顯微鏡下觀察到。
  • Inside the reactor the large molecules are cracked into smaller molecules. 在反應堆里,大分子裂變為小分子。
17 withdrawal Cfhwq     
  • The police were forced to make a tactical withdrawal.警方被迫進行戰術撤退。
  • They insisted upon a withdrawal of the statement and a public apology.他們堅持要收回那些話并公開道歉。
18 physiological aAvyK     
  • He bought a physiological book.他買了一本生理學方面的書。
  • Every individual has a physiological requirement for each nutrient.每個人對每種營養成分都有一種生理上的需要。
19 chronic BO9zl     
  • Famine differs from chronic malnutrition.饑荒不同于慢性營養不良。
  • Chronic poisoning may lead to death from inanition.慢性中毒也可能由虛弱導致死亡。