蒲公英 The Dandelion
文章來源:未知 文章作者:enread 發布時間:2020-05-07 08:42 字體: [ ]  進入論壇
All through the summer, and during spring and autumn as well, our meadows and waste places are thickly dotted with the bright-yellow flowers of the common weed called the dandelion. And even throughout the winter the leaves of this hardy1 plant remain green. Let us dig up a dandelion, root and all, and examine it; for though it is only a weed, we can learn from it many things about the life of plants.
無論是春天、夏天還是秋天, 草地和荒原上總是鋪滿了一層明黃色的小花, 這種開著黃花的植物就是蒲公英。就算是到了冬季, 這種頑強植物的葉子依舊綠意盎然。讓我們連根拔起一株蒲公英, 仔細觀察。雖然它只是一種野草, 但我們還是可以從中了解到植物生活的許多細節。
The root is long, thick, and tapering2, and it has many small fibres or rootlets growing from its sides and from the end. The root of a plant, as you already know, fixes the plant in the ground, and its fibres suck in food for the plant out of the soil. But the root of the dandelion does more than this: it stores up in its thick part much food for the use of the plant, to help it in producing its flowers and seeds.
蒲公英的根呈錐形, 又長又粗, 兩側與末端生長出很多細小的纖維或細根。你已經知道, 植物的根能將植物固定在土地中, 而根須則負責從土壤中吸收營養。然而, 蒲公英的根卻具備跟多功能:肥厚的根部能夠儲存食物, 以供自身消耗, 從而生長出花朵與種子。
The dandelion has no long stem or trunk, but from the top of the root a number of green leaves spread out and form a rosette. These leaves have broad points and very jagged edges. The side of each leaf looks a little like the jaw3 of a lion, and our name dandelion comes from the French name of this plant, which means "lion's tooth. "
蒲公英沒有長長的莖干, 不過在根的頂部卻生長出一些向外擴散的綠葉, 從而形成蓮座叢。這些葉子頂端較寬, 邊緣則呈鋸齒狀。從側面來看, 每一片葉子都好像獅子的下腭, 蒲公英的名字正是從這種植物的法語名稱而來, 意思就是“獅子的牙齒”。
These curious leaves are not flat. Their edges curve upwards4, so that each leaf forms an open water-pipe. When rain falls, the leaves carry the refreshing5 water to the centre of the rosette, and pour it down among the roots. If you look at other plants, you will find many of them with leaves that gather the rain-water in this way and carry it to the roots.
這些形狀奇特的葉子并不是扁平形狀。它們的邊緣向上彎曲, 于是, 每一片葉子實際上就成了一個沒有封閉的水管。下雨時, 葉子就會將清新的雨水送到玫瑰結的中間, 然后再注入根里。觀察其他植物, 就會發現, 很多植物也都長有此類葉子, 并且通過這種方法把水分送到根部。
In spring, some hollow flower-stalks grow up from the centre of the rosette of leaves. Each stalk bears what looks like one large yellow flower. But if you pull one of these flower-heads to pieces, you will find that it is really made up of a great many small separate flowers, which all grow close together on the cushion-shaped top of the flower-stalk.
春天來臨之際, 有些葉子的蓮座叢中間會長出空心的花葶。每一根花葶頭上都好像頂著一朵巨大的黃花。然而, 如果你將這樣一個頭狀花序分解開來, 就會發現, 它其實由許多獨立的小花構成, 它們全部生長在花莖的墊狀頂部, 彼此緊密依靠在一起。
Outside the large flower-head is a double row of small green leaves, which protected the tiny flowers within when the "head" was only a bud. These small leaves look somewhat like the green cup or calyx which covers the young buds of single flowers. But they are really quite different.
巨大的頭狀花序外面長有兩排小綠葉, 它們能夠在“頭狀花序”只是蓓蕾時保護深藏其中的幼年小花。這些葉子看起來就像是綠色的杯子或者說是包裹著單生花的花蕾的花萼, 不過它們之間的區別很大。
If we pull off some of the many small yellow flowers or florets that make up the flower-head, and look at them very carefully, we shall see that each has an outside fringe of white hairs. These hairs are really the calyx or outer cup of the tiny flower; and although they do not seem to be of any use to it now, we shall see that they are of much use by-and-by. The little flower itself is a narrow tube, one side of which grows out into a long yellow ribbon.
取下幾朵黃色的小花仔細觀察, 就會發現, 每一只花朵外面都長有白色細絲狀的邊緣結構。這些才是真正的花萼;雖然現在它們看起來沒什么作用, 不過我們逐漸就會了解到它們的重要功能。小花本身呈狹窄的管狀結構, 其中一側發育成為長長的黃色帶狀物。
Inside this tube are five very small dust-spikes, all growing together, and forming another and smaller tube. In the centre of the flower is the seed- vessel6. At the bottom it is round and white like a little bag. From the top the slender yellow style rises, pushing two rough curving horns out beyond the flower-tube. These horns are ready to catch any pollen7 dust that insects may bring.
這個管狀結構內部則是五個非常細小的雄蕊, 彼此緊靠在一起, 構成另外一個更小的管狀結構;ǘ渲虚g則是種皮。底部是一個白色的袋裝結構。頂部則長有細細的黃色花柱, 兩個不平整的卷曲突起伸展而出, 扎根于花冠筒的上方。這兩個突起隨時準備捕捉昆蟲傳播過來的花粉。


1 hardy EenxM     
  • The kind of plant is a hardy annual.這種植物是耐寒的一年生植物。
  • He is a hardy person.他是一個能吃苦耐勞的人。
2 tapering pq5wC     
  • Interest in the scandal seems to be tapering off. 人們對那件丑聞的興趣似乎越來越小了。
  • Nonproductive expenditures keep tapering down. 非生產性開支一直在下降。
3 jaw 5xgy9     
  • He delivered a right hook to his opponent's jaw.他給了對方下巴一記右鉤拳。
  • A strong square jaw is a sign of firm character.強健的方下巴是剛毅性格的標志。
4 upwards lj5wR     
  • The trend of prices is still upwards.物價的趨向是仍在上漲。
  • The smoke rose straight upwards.煙一直向上升。
5 refreshing HkozPQ     
  • I find it'so refreshing to work with young people in this department.我發現和這一部門的青年一起工作令人精神振奮。
  • The water was cold and wonderfully refreshing.水很涼,特別解乏提神。
6 vessel 4L1zi     
  • The vessel is fully loaded with cargo for Shanghai.這艘船滿載貨物駛往上海。
  • You should put the water into a vessel.你應該把水裝入容器中。
7 pollen h1Uzz     
  • Hummingbirds have discovered that nectar and pollen are very nutritious.蜂鳥發現花蜜和花粉是很有營養的。
  • He developed an allergy to pollen.他對花粉過敏。
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TAG標簽: 英語科普 蒲公英