大衛·布魯克斯芝加哥大學畢業典禮演講:不要成為“焦慮的佼佼者
文章來源:未知 文章作者:enread 發布時間:2020-04-01 05:49 字體: [ ]  進入論壇
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大衛·布魯克斯芝加哥大學畢業典禮演講:不要成為“焦慮的佼佼者”!

I was so honored to be invited to be the inaugural1 Class Day Speaker. But obviously since I’m a graduate of the University of Chicago, I couldn’t just accept the invitation I had to overanalyze it.
很榮幸能受邀來開放日作畢業典禮演講。但我是芝加哥大學畢業的,我不能簡單地接受邀請,我還要過度分析一下這次邀請。
 
My first thought was that since this is Chicago it couldn’t just be class day; maybe it was class conflict day with special appearances by Marx and Engels and Race, Class and Gender2 day with Betty Friedan T-Shirts.
 
我首先想到的是,既然這是芝大,所以這肯定不是簡單的開放日;也許這應該是階級斗爭開放日,有打扮成馬克思和恩格斯的人出沒,或者有穿著貝蒂·弗里德曼的T-恤,慶祝種族、階級、性別自由的學生。
 
Then I began wondering why the University of Chicago class is asking me of all people to be a speaker at this big event. I remembered the major addresses of my own time here and how intellectually rigorous they were.
然后我又開始想,為什么芝大偏偏請我來這個重要的場合當致辭嘉賓。我還記得我上學那時候的致辭嘉賓,他們個個嚴謹治學、富有洞見。
 
I remembered that Freshman3 year a noted4 philosopher gave an uplifting Aims of Education Address called “Death, Despair, Desolation and the Futility5 of Human Existence.”
我記得新生入學年,一位有名的哲學家發表了振奮人心的《教育宗旨》演講,題為:“死亡、絕望、孤獨以及人類存在的虛無”。
 
Then senior year at commencement our speaker was a noted biologist. I found myself tremendously inspired by his uplifting talk, “The Sixteen Qualities of Nucleic Acid.”
然后到了高年級的畢業典禮上,致辭嘉賓是位知名的生物學家。我發覺自己被他激情四射的演講深深打動:《核酸的十六個特性》。
 
Eventually I realized that I am being invited because Chicago is trying to be like a normal school with a celebrity6 commencement speaker. But of course they couldn’t go for a big time celebrity right off the bat. Chicago is a place where you lose your virginity slowly.
最終我意識到,我之所以受邀,是因為芝大想努力地表現出,它是所“正常”的學校,有名人來做畢業典禮致辭嘉賓。當然,校方不能一下子就請一個大牌的明星。畢竟,在芝加哥就連失去自己的第一次都要很晚才實現。
 
For the first class day speaker, they wanted someone on TV, but only on PBS. Then, after everybody is acclimated7 to the outside speaker thing, they could go ahead and invite someone big.
因此,選開放日致辭嘉賓時,他們希望是在電視能看到的人,但是僅限PBS電臺。當所有人都習慣了致辭嘉賓來自外界時,校方就可以請點大人物了。
 
That’s when the truth came to me. I am University of Chicago’s gateway8 drug to Stephen Colbert. You, the class of 2017 will have to suffer through me so that future classes can enjoy Matt Damon. That’s what I call living for something larger than self.
我就是這么領悟到了玄機。我呢,是芝大請來的“入門級”的扣扣熊(注:美國知名脫口秀主持人Stephen Colbert,被粉絲稱為扣叔,扣扣熊等,以毒辣幽默的評論而為人稱道。誘導性毒品可以是酒精、大麻等等,被認為是毒品的入門級。)。你們2017級的新生呢,要先過我這一關,然后才能在將來享受馬特·達蒙(注:美國著名演員,代表組作《諜影重重》、《拯救大兵瑞恩》、《火星救援》等)。我管這叫做為了更大的目標而活著。
 
When I realized what was going on, I confess I was tempted9 to do what you millennials are always doing. I decided10 I would feel triggered and unsafe and lead a campaign to get myself disinvited. All the historical traumas11 of being a lower-middle range celebrity came down on me and I retreated to my safe space, which is under the bar at Jimmy’s.
當我意識到我為什么受邀時,我其實差點兒沒忍住做了你們千禧年一代愛做的事。我得覺得自己受到高能預警,沒有安全感,要發起一場運動,抵制這次自己的受邀。之前作為一名中低端名人的種種傷痛記憶都向我襲來,我退回了自己的安全區,就是吉米酒吧那里。(注:千禧年一代指在1981-2000年出生的人)
 
But since none of you did your generational duty and got me blocked from this gig, I’ve decided to go ahead.
但既然你們沒有履行你們這一代的義務,像之前那樣抵制致辭嘉賓,我決定繼續說下去。
 
Since Chicago is new to this game I should note that there are certain traditions involved in these kinds of occasions.
既然芝加哥大學對于“正常”的畢業致辭還不熟悉,我需要指出在這種場合下一般有的傳統元素。
 
At occasions like this major universities ask a person who has achieved a fantastic career success to give you a speech telling you that career success is not important.
像今天這個場合,知名大學會請一位功成名就知名人士來給你們致辭,告訴你們,成功并不重要。
 
At occasions like this major universities often ask billionaires to give speeches telling you how much you can learn from failure. From this you can take away the lesson that failure seems really great if you happen to be Steve Jobs or J.K. Rowling.
像今天這樣,知名大學常常會邀請億萬富翁來致辭,告訴你們能從失敗中學到什么。從這種講話中將領略到失敗是多么了不起的事情,當然,你得恰好是喬布斯或者J.K.羅琳才行。
 
Then we speakers are supposed to give you a few minutes of completely garbage advice: Listen to your inner voice. Be true to yourself. Follow your passion. Your future is limitless.
然后我們這種嘉賓就該有模有樣得給你們一些爛大街的建議:遵從你的心聲呀,做真實的自己呀。追逐自己的激情呀,你的未來無限可能呀之類的。
 
First, my generation gives you a mountain of debt; then we give you career-derailing guidelines that will prevent you from ever paying it off.
事實上,我們這一代人讓你欠下一屁股債(即美國國債),然后給你一些絕對會搞砸事業的建議,讓你以后連債務都還不清。
 
That’s why when I’m asked to speak at these things I always try to tell graduates is that since you haven’t graduated from college before you may not know the etiquette12. When you get your degree, it’s always nice to tip President Zimmer 10 or 20 bucks13 just to show he did a good job. It’s also nice to slip the class day speaker a few bills—maybe two or three thousand. Five thousand for the economy majors.
正因如此,輪到我講這些的時候,我總是試著向畢業生傳達,由于你們之前沒有經歷過大學畢業這事,可能就不知道這里面的套路。當你接過畢業證書時,最好打賞校長齊默10到20美元,等于是為他的工作點個贊。當然最好也能給開放日致辭嘉賓塞些錢——塞個兩三千美元什么的。經濟系的就給五千吧。
 
On these occasions I also always try to inspire students by telling them about the glittering possibilities in front of them. Within just a few short years many you will be sleeping on your parent’s couches while working for a completely dysfunctional NGO. Others of you will have soul crushing jobs as corporate14 consultants15, working on power points presentations past midnight at the Topeka Comfort Inn.
在這種場合,我通常會試著鼓勵一下學子,告訴他們未來一些閃光般的機遇。過不了幾年,你們中就會有不少人躺在父母的沙發上呼呼大睡,平時也就是去些辦不下去的非政府組織里打打醬油。還有一些會被企業咨詢一類的工作磨掉心智,天天為了 PPT 在 Topeka Comfort Inn熬到半夜。 (注:Topeka Comfort Inn是那種幾十美金一晚的廉價旅店,名字里面帶“舒適”,略諷刺)
 
I’m here to help you navigate16 these exciting possibilities. I’m here to help you take advantage of the skills you learned at the University of Chicago. You learned how to dominate classroom discussion after having done none of the reading. You learned how to stare at professors with looks of complete rapt attention even though secretly you were completely asleep.
我今天來就是給你們說說該怎么應對這類雞凍人心的未來。我過來是幫你利用好在芝大學到的技能。你學會了在不做任何閱讀的情況下,依然在課堂討論中稱霸一方。你學會了假裝全神貫注地盯著臺上的教授,實際上你早已昏昏欲睡。
 
I’m here to urge (you to) lives of public service, working on Capitol Hill for congressmen, while bringing the nation’s top leaders coffee and sexual tension. I’m here to urge you to serve the world’s poorest people in ways that will look really good on your resume, like organizing an anti-malarial bed net drives while rocking Jimmy Choos at Goldman Sachs. I’m here because, as someone who now teachers at Yale, you should have some sense of what it would have been like if you’d been accepted there.
你們要盡早從政為民,去國會山給眾議員工作,給政界高層人物端個咖啡、帶來性焦慮。(注:諷刺辦公室性騷擾以及指控性騷擾帶來的沖突)去幫助那些窮困潦倒之人,讓自己的簡歷看起來漂亮。比如組織個反瘧疾蚊帳推廣運動什么的,同時自己拎著吉米·周的包包在高盛晃悠。我今天來是因為,由于我現在在耶魯教書,所以你應該能大概知道如果你去那兒的話,你感受到的氛圍是怎樣的。
 
But ultimately, I’m not here to give you some standard speech. This is Chicago. This is the only time in my life that I will get to address the graduating class at my own school, at the place that formed me down to my bones.
但話說回來,我來這兒不是為了熬一鍋程式化的雞湯。這里是芝加哥。這是我人生中唯一一次能給我的母校畢業生致辭的機會。芝大給我打上了深深的烙印。
 
I confess I didn’t enjoy every day I spent here. I majored in History and Celibacy17. I learned how to walk through campus while awkwardly averting18 my eyes from anybody I might know. But like all of you, I was changed fundamentally in this place.
說實話,我當時并非每天都很開心。我主修歷史也主修禁欲。我學會了如何在穿過校園的同時又假裝沒看到任何一個我可能認識的人。但和你們一樣,芝大徹底改變了我。
 
The older I get the more I become aware of how it shaped me. I’m 34 years out of college and I feel more influenced by the University of Chicago today than I did on the day I graduated.
隨著年歲的增長,我越發體會到芝大對我的影響。我畢業都34年了,可我感覺如今芝大對我的影響甚至比我畢業時還明顯。
 
So today I’d really like to talk to you about two things: The things Chicago gave me, which I’ve carried through life, and the things Chicago failed to give me, which I had to learn on my own.
所以今天我想給你們講兩點:芝大教給我讓我受用至今的東西,以及它沒有教給我從而我必須自己學習的東西。
 
 
When I think back on my time here I remember certain moments of great intensity19. There was one very odd moment during my first year when I was reading a book called The Death of Tragedy by Nietzsche in a carol on the A level of the Regenstein.
回想我在芝大念書的時候,我記得有那么幾次,我受到了頭暈目眩的沖擊。我大一時有一次就很奇怪,我在讀一本書,書名是《悲劇的死亡》,尼采寫的,在芝大雷根斯坦圖書館A層。
 
I don’t know what it was: the driving semi insane power of Nietzsche thought, the overwrought and intoxicating20 nature of his prose, but somehow while reading that book reality seemed to slip its bounds. I lost all sense of where I was or who I was or how time was passing or whether it was passing at all. Hours flew by and I was just buried inside that book.
我也說不上怎么回事。尼采思想的那種近乎癲狂的驅動力,還有他那仿佛魔力一般能引起情緒起伏的散文?傊,讀那本書的時候,虛實之間的界限模糊了。我全然分不清我在哪兒,我是誰,感受不到時間的流逝,覺得時間完全靜止。幾個小時過去了,我仿佛鉆到那本書里。
 
I was not so much reading it; I was immersed in the torrent21 of its prose and the fury of its ideas. I was just a sort of dissolved, lifted out of myself, transported, subsumed, and some sort of trance or a state of awed22 reverence23 or under a spell cast by a semi crazy long dead mind.
我感覺自己不是在讀它,而是被裹在那散文的激流中,猛烈的思想沖刷著我。感覺自己仿佛在溶解,靈魂出了竅,前往別處,被吸收了。朦朦朧朧的,敬仰之情油然而生,好似被一位早就死了的半瘋之人施了魔咒。
 
There I was in a shabby carol on the basement level of the ugliest building on God’s green earth, and I was experiencing something close to transcendence. And when I awoke from that state I looked around startled and blinking, shocked to be re-entering the 20th century, and real life.
當時在地下室,在那棟世界上最丑的樓里,我體驗了一把超驗的感覺。當我回過神的時候,我懵懵地看著四周,擠弄著眼睛,不敢相信自己還能回到20世紀,回到現實。
 
I never really became a Neitzsche fan, but it was exciting to know that the ideas of some dead genius, could transport me and give me a glimmer24 of a higher realm. There were other intensities25 during my time here. There was intense arguing with all my friends about bullshitty subjects at the dining hall hour upon hour. There were intense pseudointellectual debates with graduate students at Jimmys; There was the intensity of serious movie going at Doc Films; and most of all there was a certain intensity in class.
我從未成為尼采真正的粉絲,但振奮人心的是,我知道這些逝去的天才依然能帶我一把,去領略一下那更高的殿堂。我在芝大還體會過其他張力十足的時刻。我和朋友們激烈地爭論過一些亂七八糟的話題,在食堂里唧唧呱呱幾個小時。我和畢業生們裝作知識分子一樣在吉米酒吧那里爭論過。這種時刻還出現在Doc 影院放映著嚴肅電影時。當然,最激烈的還得算在課堂上。
 
In those days it was pure Great Books for the first two years, and our professors didn’t just teach them, they proselytized26 them. Some of the old German refugees from World War II were still around then, and they held the belief, with a religious fervor27, that the magic keys to the kingdom were in these books. The mysteries of life and how to live well were there for the seizing for those who read well and thought deeply.
那時候,頭兩年都是存粹地讀一些偉大的書籍。而我們的那些教授們不僅僅是教這些書,而是在試圖讓學生皈依。老師中有一些德國的難民,二戰中幸存后依然活著,他們懷著宗教般的熱烈,相信通往極樂世界的魔法鑰匙就在這些書中。生命的神秘以及美好生活的神性,就在這些書里,等著那些熱愛閱讀、思考深邃的人來發現。
 
There was a legendary28 professor named Karl Weintraub teaching Western Civ then. Years later, when he was nearing death he wrote to my classmate Carol Quillen about his experience teaching these books.
當時有位堪稱傳奇的教授,叫卡爾·溫特萊布(注:美國歷史學家,自1954年起在芝大任教,同時指導社會理論、文化歷史等人文學科方面的研究)教西方文明史。好多年后,他快去世之前,寫信給我的同學卡羅·奎林,講述他教這些書的體驗:
 
Teaching Western Civ, Weintraub wrote, “seems to confront me all too often with moments when I feel like screaming suddenly: ‘Oh, God, my dear student, why CANNOT you see that this matter is a real, real matter, often a matter of the very being, for the person, for the historical men and women you are looking at — or are supposed to be looking at!”
溫特萊布寫道:“教授西方文明史似乎經常把我推到想要尖叫的地步:”噢,天哪,這位同學,你怎么就不明白,這個問題真的,真的很重要,事關一個人之所是,這些你正在學習的歷史人物,或者說你應該要去學習的歷史人物。
 
I hear the student’s answers and statements that sound like mere29 words, mere verbal formulations to me, but that do not have the sense of pain or joy or accomplishment30 or worry about them that they ought to have if they were TRULY informed by the live problems and situations of the human beings back there for whom these matters were real.
我所聽到的學生們的答案也好,陳述也好,只是純粹的詞句、空有語言的架子。沒有他們該有的心痛、喜悅、成就感和擔憂,如果他們打心底意識到這些人類所面對過的問題和境遇如何與生死休戚相關的話,就能真切地感受當時這些問題的重要。
 
The way these disembodied words come forth31 can make me cry, and the failure of the speaker to probe for the open wounds and such behind the text makes me increasingly furious. “If I do not come to feel any of the love which Pericles feels for his city, how can I understand the Funeral Oration32? If I cannot fathom33 anything of the power of the drive derived34 from thinking that he has a special mission, what can I understand of Socrates? ...
這些學生們抽象的討論,常常催我淚下。而談論它的人要是沒能去探尋這些歷史傷痕以及文字背后之事的話,就會讓我非常憤怒。”如果我未能體會到伯利克利(注:雅典黃金時期(希波戰爭至伯羅奔尼撒戰爭)具有重要影響的領導人。他在希波戰爭后的廢墟中重建雅典,扶植文化藝術,現存的很多古希臘建筑都是在他的時代所建)對他所在之城的愛,我又怎能理解那篇《葬禮演說辭》?如果我沒有去探究蘇格拉底堅信自己身負特殊使命的精神之源,我又如何理解他呢?
 
How can one grasp anything about the problem of the Galatian community without sensing in one’s bones the problem of worrying about God’s acceptance? “Sometimes when I have spent an hour or more, pouring all my enthusiasm and sensitivities into an effort to tell these stories in the fullness in which I see and experience them, I feel drained and exhausted35. I think it works on the student, but I do not really know.”
如果一個人壓根不擔心上帝接不接受你這一問題,又怎么能理解加拉太人面臨的處境呢?有時候,我花上一個多小時,拿出我全部的熱情和細膩向學生全面地講述我所體會到的一切,我感到自己被抽空了,精疲力竭。我覺得這對學生有用,但我并不確定。
 
It is a tragedy of teaching that sometimes the professors pour more into the class than the students are able to receive. But in truth that intense teaching is more like planting. Those teachers like Weintraub were inserting seeds that would burst forth years or decades later when the realities of adult life called them forth. I hated Edmund Burke when I read him here but years later he exploded in my mind and has become one of the great guides of my life. I was blandly36 indifferent to Augustine when I encountered him, it was only later that I understood the power of his loves and his wrestling with his own soul, and the need to be careful about what you love, because you become what you love.
教學的一個悲劇就是,有時候教授們在課堂上傾注的遠多于學生能吸收的。但實際上,這種高強度的教學更像是在樹人。像溫特萊布這樣的老師,是在播種,等到幾年甚至幾十年后,成年生活中的種種現實會澆灌這些種子,令其茁壯生長。我在芝大讀埃德蒙·伯克時,我很反感他。但多年后,他又重回我的腦海,并成為了我生活中的一位重要向導。我初讀奧古斯汀時,提不起什么興致,直到后來我才理解了他那愛與靈魂掙扎之中蘊含的力量,明白了要謹慎得對待我之所愛,因為它會成為我之所是。
 
Chicago gave me glimpses of the mountain ranges of human existences. It gave me a set of longings38, higher longings than any I had had. In the first place, I longed to know how to see. Seeing reality seems like a straightforward39 thing. You just look out and see the world. But anybody who is around politics or many other arenas40 knows how many people see the world with a distorting mirror, how many see only what they want to see, or what they can see by the filtering light of their depression, fear, insecurity or narcissism41.
芝大讓我領略了人類文明的崇山峻嶺。它點燃了我內心的諸多渴望,我從未有過的更高層次的渴望。首先,我渴望看見?匆姮F實似乎是再明顯不過的一件事,只需要睜開眼,就能看到這個世界。但是關切政治討論以及其他領域的人都清楚,有太多人帶著扭曲的視角看世界,有太多人只想看到他們想看到的,或者,只能看到由他們壓抑、恐懼、不安全或是自戀的濾鏡處理過的世界。
 
Sometimes I think the whole disaster of the Trump42 presidency43 is because of a breakdown44 of intellectual virtue45. A break down in America’s ability to face evidence clearly, to pay due respect to the concrete contours of reality. These intellectual virtues46 may seem elitist, but once a country tolerates dishonesty, incuriosity and intellectual laziness, then everything else falls apart.
有時候我覺得,特朗普當選總統的噩夢,正反映了求知美德崩壞的現實。美國人實事求是的能力崩壞了,沒有給事實的清晰輪廓以足夠尊重。這些求知的美德或許顯得有些精英主義,但一旦一個國家開始容忍欺瞞、無知、懶于探索,那就必將禮崩樂壞。
 
John Ruskin once wrote, “The more I think of it I find this conclusion more impressed upon me— that the greatest thing a human soul ever does is to see something, and tell what is saw in a plain way. Hundreds of people can talk for one who can think, but thousands can think for one who can see.” At Chicago, I encountered so many writers who could see so purely47 and carefully --Shakespeare, Hume, Socrates and George Eliot, George Orwell and Hannah Arendt. I met so many professors and students who could weigh evidence and who didn’t tolerate intellectual shabbiness. It aroused in me a desire to have that virtue—the ability to see clearly and face unpleasant facts.
約翰·拉斯金曾寫到:“我越是深入地思考,我就越傾向于得出這個結論——人類所能做的最了不起之事就是,看到了什么,便如實地說出來。千百人口說不如一人思索,千萬人思索不如一人見過。”在芝大,我邂逅許許多多目光澄澈又細膩的作家:莎士比亞、休謨、蘇格拉底、喬治·艾略特、喬治·奧威爾還有漢娜·阿倫特。我見過許許多多注重實證、不容馬虎求知的教授和學生。這讓我也渴望具備此種品質——懂得觀看之道,直面不快的現實。
 
 
Then there was the second yearning48 which is the yearning to be wise. I really couldn’t tell you then what wisdom consists of, and I still can’t give you a concrete definition. But we all know wisdom when we see it. There is a deep humanity, gentleness, and stability to a wise person. That person can perceive, with love and generosity49, the foibles of another heart. That person can grasp the nub of any situation, see around corners and has developed an intuitive awareness50 of what will go together and what will never go together.
第二種渴望,就是對智慧的渴望。我無法告訴你智慧由什么構成,也說不上智慧的準確定義。但我們見到智慧時,我們都會認出它來。根植于心的人性、風度和穩重就體現在智者的身上。他能透過愛與包容去審視別人的缺陷;他能直指任何問題的核心;環顧四野,便可洞見凝聚之力與不可強求之事。
 
That wisdom, I imagine, comes from paying deep and loving attention to the people around you. It comes from many hours of solitary51 reflection. It comes from reading of the greats. It comes from getting out of your own century, thinking outside of your assumptions and embarking52 on a great lifelong journey toward understanding.
That sort of humane53 wisdom was admired here. We wouldn’t have told each other this, because it would be too pretentious54, but all those bullshitty dinner table conversations and bar stool conversations about the great ideas were attempts to put together the building blocks of that kind of wisdom. They were attempts to put ourselves together so we could be of use. They were attempts to imitate penetrating55 insight of Hume, the smile of Voltaire, and the gentle guidance of a dozen professors whose names you may know or may not know, some living Nathan Tarcov, Josef Stern; some of my old professors who are now dead.
在我看來,要具備這種智慧,我們需真情實意地關懷身邊的人,需要時常在獨處中自我反省,需要閱讀偉大的作品;需要我們跳出所置身的時代,跳出自己現有的成見,動身踏上求取理解的終身之旅。
芝大推崇這種閃耀人性光芒的智慧。我們用不著奔走相告,因為那樣太過刻意。但我經歷的那些食堂扯談和酒吧論戰,都是在嘗試將這種智慧的零件組裝在一起。我們試著塑造我們自己,從而成為有用之人。我們試著像休謨那樣富有洞見,像伏爾泰那樣微笑、像許許多多的教授那樣誨爾諄諄,你們也許知道或不知道的名字,在世的有內森·塔可夫、約瑟夫·斯坦恩,還有的老教授,已別離人世。
 
 
Third, Chicago gave me a yearning for ideals. It is sometimes said that we humans seek happiness. We seek the fulfillment of our desires. But of course that’s not true. Peace and happiness is great for a while but after a bit it gets boring. “What our human emotions seem to require,” William James once wrote, “is the sight of struggle going on. The moment the fruits are being merely eaten things become ignoble56. Sweat and effort, human nature strained to the uttermost and on the rack, yet getting through it alive, and then turning back on its success to pursue another more rare and arduous57 journey—this is the sort of thing that inspires us.”
第三,芝大給了我對理想的渴望。有時候人們說,人生的目的在于尋求幸福。我們尋求自身欲望的滿足。當然,這不是事實。平靜和幸福只是短暫的美好,很快人們就開始無聊了。“人類情感似乎需要的是”,威廉·詹姆士曾寫道:“能一直看到掙扎的景象。果實被吞下的那一刻,滿足感就頓顯卑劣。汗水與努力,人性承受極限之壓,痛苦不堪,然而度過了這一劫,又拒絕享受成功,轉而踏上更為人跡罕至的艱苦之旅——正是這種事情激勵著我們。”
 
James summed it up pretty well. Human existence is the same eternal thing: Some man or womans’ pains in pursuit of some exalted58 ideal.
詹姆士總結得很好,人類的存在有著一個永恒的主題:每個人的痛苦鋪就了追逐至高理想的路。
 
I recently saw the movie “Hidden Figures,” about some African American women who served the cause of space exploration and racial justice. Those women weren’t exactly happy in that movie, in the story told by the movie,but there was a spiritual intensity serving their two great ideals. That’s what we want in all of our lives. Intense struggling for the good.
我最近看了電影《隱藏人物》,講得是一些非裔的美國女性投身于太空探索和種族正義的事業。這些女性在電影中并不快樂,故事中看不出來她們的快樂。但是,有一股精神張力一直推著她們追逐這兩個偉大的理想。那正是我們所有人生命中想要的。對美好事物極力地爭取。
 
If nothing else, Chicago presented us with high ideals in profusion59: the patriotism61 of Pericles, the commitment of Fermi, the American dream of Alexander Hamilton. I surely wasn’t smart enough to come up with my own philosophy or set my own ideals. But I could try on different ideals passed down to us from our betters, and I could see which ones seemed to fit, and I could join that parade.
芝大至少給我們呈現了泉涌般高尚的理想:伯里克利的愛國情操,費密的專注,亞歷山大·漢密爾頓的美國夢。我當然還沒有智慧到可以發明一套屬于我自己的哲學,或是創立屬于我自己的理想,但我可以嘗試這些賢者傳遞給我們的理想,看看我認同哪些,然后我參與到傳承它的隊伍中去。
 
They say that life here is about the life of the mind, but that is an injustice62. The mind and the soul are not so easily separated. These yearnings that I have described transplanted me here--to see the world clearly, to be wise, to pursue ideals—these weren’t really the yearnings of the mind. They were yearnings from deeper, from the part of us that can only be called the soul.
他們認為,這兒的學院生活就是心智生活,但這話有失偏頗。心智和靈魂不是那么容易分開的。我剛剛講過的這些渴望,想要看清這個世界,想要變得智慧,想要追求理想,這些不算是精神追求。他們源自更深層的地方,我們將其稱之為靈魂。
 
We don’t talk about this much in our secular63 culture, but there is a part of us that doesn’t care about Facebook likes, or annual income or even how popular you are. This is the part of us that yearns64 for permanent things, for beauty, truth, justice, transcendence and home. This is the part of us that is morally valuable, that each of us worthy65 of dignity and respect. The poet Rilke had an education like ours. He wrote, “I am learning to see. I don’t know why it is, but everything penetrates66 more deeply into me and does not stop at the place where until now it always used to finish. I have an inner self of which I was ignorant. Everything goes thither67 now. What happens there I do not know.”
我們在俗世中并不怎么談論靈魂,但我們在一些時候也會不關心臉書上有沒有人點贊,不關心年收入,甚至不在乎自己紅不紅。這中時候,我們就是在追求永恒之物。追求美、真理、正義、超驗和家園。這正是我們身上道德價值的體現,是我們每個人應受尊重、享有尊嚴之所在。詩人里爾克曾有過類似的體會。他寫道:我學著看見。我不知為何如此,但此刻,一切都向我深處滲透,一切都不再停留在它們之前停下的地方。我體內還有一個我,我不知道的我。一切都到了未知的領地,那里發生的事我并不知曉。
 
I’ll never be as deep as Rilke, but I was deeper when I left Chicago than when I arrived. More important, I graduated from the University of Chicago with a little sense of my soul and its yearnings.
我無法像里克爾那樣深刻,但我離開芝大時,我比來芝大時更深刻了。更重要的是,我從芝大畢業時,朦朧地感知到了我的靈魂和渴望。
 
There was a lot of longing37 going on then. And there still a lot that goes on today. Two Saturdays ago my wife Anne and I got together with the philosophy professor Candace Vogler in Cobb Hall and led a seminar under the sponsorship of the Hyde Park Institute. It was a beautiful spring day and we all spent it inside, talking about character and spiritual growth, about Aquinas and Beethoven and Victor Frankl. We took a lunch break and set to going out to enjoy the sun. Some of the students had their sandwiches inside and had an internal debate among themselves about the immateriality of the soul. Only in Chicago. And I saw that day this place is still wonderfully itself. I felt some of that old intensity of purpose.
那時我懷著諸多渴望,今天也是如此。兩周前,我的太太和我還有哲學教授Candace Vogler在考伯大樓里主持了一場研討會,由海德公園研究所贊助。那是個明媚的春日,我們都在室內,談論品格和精神成長,討論阿奎奈(注:意大利神學家)、貝多芬、維克多·弗蘭克爾(注:著名猶太裔心理學家,他是二戰集中營幸存者)。我們中午吃午飯時,出去沐浴了一會陽光。有的學生在室內吃著三明治,他們內部進行了一場辯論,關于靈魂的非物質性。芝大獨有的景象。那天我覺得,這里仍然是個神奇的地方,我感覺到了那種舊時的強烈使命。
 
There is still the same honest and unironic hunger for wisdom. There is still the willingness to put your ideas out there and argue and listen. There is still that ardent68 searching for truth and the willingness to be silly in pursuit of it.
仍然可見的是那種誠肯端正的求知若渴,仍然可見的是人們愿意亮出觀點,然后辯論和傾聽。仍然可見的是求真的熱情,以及不恥下問的精神。
 
Chicago gives you a taste for mountaineering, for climbing up toward the summits of human existence.
芝大讓你向往攀登高峰,朝著人類存在的頂峰不斷攀登。
 
Afterwards, you’re never quite content living in the flatlands, living solely69 in the stuff that gets written about on twitter, or even in the newspapers or talked about on reality TV. Many years ago a man named Robert Maynard Hutchins bet this institutions future on one proposition: that if you put the big ideas in front of a bunch of 20-year-olds you can change their life forever. I can tell you, it worked for me. It completely worked for me.
經此一役,你就再也不會滿足于停留在平地上,再也不會滿足于只是刷刷推特,甚至不會滿足于看看報紙或是真人秀節目。多年前,一位名叫羅伯特·梅納德·哈欽斯(注:美國教育家,曾任芝大校長)的人將芝大未來的希望押注于這一點:若能把偉大的理念擺在一幫20來歲的年輕人眼前,則會改變他們的一生。我可以告訴大家,這一理念在我身上是奏效的,芝大完全改變了我。
 
And this change that happens in those of us who went here is a very practical change.
這種改變,對于那些求學于此的人,也是務實可見的改變。
 
 
We have a Telos Crisis in this country. Many people do not have a clear sense of their goals and their own purpose. They don’t know what they are shooting for, or what fundamental convictions should guide their behavior. They’ve been trained in hyper-specialized research universities that tell them how to do things but don’t ask them to think about why they should do them; that don’t give them a forum70 to ask the questions, What is my own best life? What am I called to do? Why am I here?
目前在這個國家,我們正經歷著關于終極意義的危機。 許多人對自己的目標和目的沒有清晰的認識。他們不知道他們在追逐什么,或者遵從什么樣的根本信念行事。 他們在各自細分的專業領域接受大學的科研訓練,學校教他們怎么做事,卻不教他們思考為何要做。大學也沒有為他們提供發問的論壇,去問我應該如何生活?我的使命是什么?我為什么要來這里?
 
From college they enter the world we all live in, which is a busy world. The flow of a thousand emails, the tasks of setting up a career and family. These things distract from the great questions of purpose and meaning.
從大學里走出,他們就進入了真實的世界,一個忙忙碌碌的世界。成千上萬的電郵要回,馬不停蹄地規劃事業、組建家庭。種種此般皆讓人無法聚焦于關乎生命意義與目的的問題。
 
I find that many people haven’t even been given a moral vocabulary to help think these things through.
我看到很多人就連這些思考德性話題的詞匯都不具備。
 
They haven’t been surrounded with a functioning moral ecology and a set of ideal to guide and orient them.
他們并沒有處在一個良好的道德生態之中,也甚少接觸那些能引導指點他們的理念。
 
And this produces a great emotional fragility. Our friend Nietzsche said that he who has a why to live for can endure any how. But if you don’t know what your purpose is then the first failure or setback71 can totally throw you into crisis and total collapse72.
這就造成了一種巨大的情感脆弱。我們的朋友尼采曾說過,若知為何而生,遂可納受一切。但倘若你不知道自己的使命,那即使是第一次失敗或挫折就能置你于危機之中,讓你徹底崩潰。
 
I see this among my former students, and I see it over and over again in people in their mid-twenties. The young person without a conscious purpose graduates and hopes by piling success upon success he can fill the void within. He becomes what the writer Matias Dalsgaard calls: The Insecure Overachiever:
“Such a person, ”Dalsgaard writes, “must have no stable or solid foundation to build upon, and yet nonetheless tries to build his way out of his problem. It is an impossible situation. You can’t compensate73 for having a foundation made of quicksand by building a new story on top of it. But this person takes no notice and hopes that the problem down in the foundations won’t be found out if only the construction work keeps going.”
我在我教過的學生身上看到過這種缺失,二十幾歲的年輕人身上也屢見不鮮。沒有明確目標的年輕人畢業了,指望用一次次堆砌成功來填補內心的空洞。他們成了 Matias Dalsgaard所謂的“焦慮的佼佼者”。(注:Matias是麥肯錫前雇員,指出在初入職場的年輕人身上特別明顯地存在一種焦慮狀態,后來他在書詳述了這種焦慮狀態的五個特點)
Dalsgaard 寫道:“這種人一定沒有穩固的處事根基,但依然試圖讓自己從所遇的問題中解脫出來。這等于陷自己于不可能之境。你無法通過建造新的樓層,來彌補像流沙一般的地基。但這種人會繼續無視這點,一心希望只要修建工作繼續下去,地基的問題就不會被發現。”
 
But of course the reckoning always comes. It produces the crisis, the depression, the sadness. David Foster Wallace noticed it back in 1996: “It’s more like a stomach level sadness,” He wrote, “I see it in myself and my friends in different ways. It manifests itself in a kind of lostness.
但凡事終有報。危機感來臨,壓抑感和沮喪接踵而至。大衛·福斯特·華萊士(注:美國知名作家,其暢銷巨著Infinite Jest被《時代》雜志列為1923年至2005年間最偉大的百部小說之一)在1996年注意到了這點,他寫道:“這種悲傷深入直覺。我在自己身上、朋友身上都以不同的方式看見過。它表現出一種若有所失。”
 
“This is a generation that has an inheritance of absolutely nothing as far as meaningful moral values goes,” He wrote, “You can see the fruits of the Telos Crisis in the rising suicide rates, the rising drug addiction74 rates. You can see the social distrust. You can see the isolation75 and the lives of people who are adrift.”
“從意義性與道德觀念方面來看,這是繼承了虛無的一代人。終極意義危機的惡果體現在不斷攀升的自殺率上,體現在不斷增加的毒品成癮上,你看到社會信任缺失,不少人過著離群索居,漂泊無依的生活。”
 
The fact that you went to Chicago means you’ll always have an orientation76 that is slightly different than the mainstream77 culture, slightly countercultural. You’ll have a harder time being shallow. You may not know your life’s purpose or your calling, but you know that that mountain world exists and you can explore it, and that the answers can be found up there in the Museum of Beautiful Things, and that knowledge itself will be a source of great comfort and stability.
你到芝大來,就意味著你一定會受到一種指引,它與主流文化略有不同,稍微逆流而行。膚淺地過活,反而變得不易。你可能并不知道生命的意義或是你的使命,但是你知道崇山峻嶺就在那里等著你去探索,人生的諸多答案就在那座美好之物的博覽館里,知識會給你莫大的安慰,讓你變得冷靜沉穩。
 
Life at the university of Chicago is not always filled with day to day happiness. But it gives you glimpses of cosmic happiness, glimpses of understanding the long story all involved in. And if you have cosmic joy, because you know this story is ultimately about something meaningful, holy and good, you can bear the day to day miseries78 a lot better. So that is the good side of what I got here and what I hope you got here. Let me finish by speaking very briefly79 about what the University of Chicago did not give to me, and where it failed me.
在芝大的生活并非流淌著日常幸福。但它會讓你瞥見更大我的幸福,瞥見人類漫長求索之旅的宏圖。如果你體會到了這種大我的歡愉,因為你知道它最終關切的是生命的意義,神圣與美妙,那你自然能更好地承受日常的痛苦。這些就是芝大賜予我的美好,也是我期望大家也能從這兒獲取的。最后我想簡單說一下芝大沒能教給我的東西,芝大辜負我的地方。

But of course the reckoning always comes. It produces the crisis, the depression, the sadness. David Foster Wallace noticed it back in 1996: “It’s more like a stomach level sadness,” He wrote, “I see it in myself and my friends in different ways. It manifests itself in a kind of lostness.
但凡事終有報。危機感來臨,壓抑感和沮喪接踵而至。大衛·福斯特·華萊士(注:美國知名作家,其暢銷巨著Infinite Jest被《時代》雜志列為1923年至2005年間最偉大的百部小說之一)在1996年注意到了這點,他寫道:“這種悲傷深入直覺。我在自己身上、朋友身上都以不同的方式看見過。它表現出一種若有所失。”
 
“This is a generation that has an inheritance of absolutely nothing as far as meaningful moral values goes,” He wrote, “You can see the fruits of the Telos Crisis in the rising suicide rates, the rising drug addiction rates. You can see the social distrust. You can see the isolation and the lives of people who are adrift.”
“從意義性與道德觀念方面來看,這是繼承了虛無的一代人。終極意義危機的惡果體現在不斷攀升的自殺率上,體現在不斷增加的毒品成癮上,你看到社會信任缺失,不少人過著離群索居,漂泊無依的生活。”
 
The fact that you went to Chicago means you’ll always have an orientation that is slightly different than the mainstream culture, slightly countercultural. You’ll have a harder time being shallow. You may not know your life’s purpose or your calling, but you know that that mountain world exists and you can explore it, and that the answers can be found up there in the Museum of Beautiful Things, and that knowledge itself will be a source of great comfort and stability.
你到芝大來,就意味著你一定會受到一種指引,它與主流文化略有不同,稍微逆流而行。膚淺地過活,反而變得不易。你可能并不知道生命的意義或是你的使命,但是你知道崇山峻嶺就在那里等著你去探索,人生的諸多答案就在那座美好之物的博覽館里,知識會給你莫大的安慰,讓你變得冷靜沉穩。
 
Life at the university of Chicago is not always filled with day to day happiness. But it gives you glimpses of cosmic happiness, glimpses of understanding the long story all involved in. And if you have cosmic joy, because you know this story is ultimately about something meaningful, holy and good, you can bear the day to day miseries a lot better. So that is the good side of what I got here and what I hope you got here. Let me finish by speaking very briefly about what the University of Chicago did not give to me, and where it failed me.
在芝大的生活并非流淌著日常幸福。但它會讓你瞥見更大我的幸福,瞥見人類漫長求索之旅的宏圖。如果你體會到了這種大我的歡愉,因為你知道它最終關切的是生命的意義,神圣與美妙,那你自然能更好地承受日常的痛苦。這些就是芝大賜予我的美好,也是我期望大家也能從這兒獲取的。最后我想簡單說一下芝大沒能教給我的東西,芝大辜負我的地方。
 
 
Now here I speak provisionally, because I’m going to start talking about the school as it was in the 1980s, and a lot of the problems may have been fixed80 by now.
我得聲明我說的這些都是陳年往事,因為我下面談到的是芝大上世紀八十年代的情況。很多問題現在可能都不是問題了。
 
It is traditional for alumni to say that the college was better in their own day. As both an alum and a trustee I can tell you that’s nonsense here I’m here to tell you that Chicago is way better now than it was when I was here, and way better than it has ever been.
校友們大多會說舊時的校園有舊時的好。身為芝大的校友和校董之一,我覺得這種說法是無稽之談。事實上,現在的芝大遠遠好過我求學時的芝大,也遠遠好過以往任何時候的芝大。
 
But in my era, and maybe today, Chicago did not prepare its students for intimacy81. As I’ve grown older I’ve come to see that the capacity for intimacy is one of the more crucial talents for a fulfilling life.
但我上學那會兒,可能今天依然如此,芝大并未教會學生如何建立親密的人際關系。隨著我年歲漸長,我開始意識到,構建親密關系的能力是促成圓滿人生的重要本領之一。
 
That’s because the primary challenges of life are not knowledge challenges, they are motivational challenges. It’s not only knowing what is good, but being completely and passionately82 devoted83 and loving what is good.
這是因為,人生面對的首要挑戰不是知識的挑戰,而是動力的挑戰。人生在于不僅要知道何為益事,還要帶著愛與熱血全身心投入其中。
 
It’s about passionately loving your spouse84 and family in a way that brings out their loveliness. It’s about loving your vocation85 with fierce dedication86. It’s about loving your community with a serving heart. It’s about loving your philosophy or your God with a humble87 fervor.
人生在于熱烈地愛著你的配偶和家人,以至于煥發出他們內心的愛。人生在于堅定地熱愛自己的事業,在于服務自己所愛的社區,在于以虔誠赤子之心愛著自己奉行的哲學或上帝。
 
A fulfilled life is moving from open options to sweet compulsions. It’s about saying no to a thousand things so you can say a few big yeses to the things you are deeply bound to. It’s about loving things so much that you’re willing to chain yourself down to them. The things you chain yourself to are the things that set you free.
圓滿的人生是從開放式選擇走向甜蜜獻身的過程,是你千萬次的拒絕只為去做幾次你深深牽掛之事,是你愿意為把自己和所愛之事綁在一起。你雖把自己綁在它們身上,可它們卻會給你自由。
 
And it’s not only loving Platonically. It’s actually and intimately living out the day to day realities of your fierce love. It’s intimately sharing the same bathroom or getting up every day and writing on the same damn laptop.
這種愛不只是柏拉圖式的理想之愛,而是將內心的熱愛真正地融入到日常生活的點滴之中。與朋友們共享浴室,同起同睡,在共享的電腦上寫寫畫畫。
 
It’s about mastering all the phases of intimacy: being open to the first enticing88 glance. Having the energy to really learn about those people, like those people on a first date who learn how much they have in common with each other and treat these things as amazing miracles: “You don’t like foigras? Neither do I! We should get married!”
它在于把握親密關系的每個階段:對第一個媚眼回以示意。真正地花精力了解那些人,就像是第一次約會的人那樣,發現彼此之間的有諸多的共同點,會認為這是驚人的巧合:“你不喜歡佛加格拉斯? 我也是! 不如我們結婚吧!”
 
It’s about having the courage to engage in the reciprocal cycle of ever greater vulnerability. It’s about enduring faithfully when there is some crisis and you’re not sure you believe in this relationship, this career or this institution. It’s about forgiveness for the betrayals committed against you and asking forgiveness when you have let down your friends or your profession or your spouse. When you make an intimate connection—to a spouse, a friend, a profession or a community or faith—you are as Leon Wieseltier puts is, “consenting to be truly known, which is an ominous89 prospect90.”
And so one needs the skills of intimacy to live well in such close proximity91. One needs the skills of intimacy to achieve the kind of fusion60 that leads to real joy—when a couple become one loving entity92, when you and your vocation have merged93 into a single identity, when your love for your God or your philosophy is a complete surrender.
它在于勇于直面循環往復的脆弱感。在于遭遇危機后依然堅守,即便自己不確定是否還相信份關系、這份事業或這個機構。在于寬恕對你的背叛,當你辜負朋友、工作失誤或是傷了配偶的心時,能請求諒解。當你與配偶、朋友、職業、社區或信仰建立密切聯系時,你就像里昂·維斯提耶所說,“愿意被他人真正地了解,雖然前路危機四伏。”
 
所以人們需要學會建立親密關系,實現相處之道。 人們需要學會建立親密關系,彼此相依,體悟人生真趣——一對夫婦要成為愛的化身,你和你的事業要合為一體,你應完全獻身于自己所信奉的哲學或上帝。
 
What I’m describing here are emotional arts. They are not natural but have to be acquired by repeated vulnerability, commitment and experience.
 
我在這里談的是情感的藝術,我們并非天生就懂得它,需要反復經歷脆弱不堪、矢志不渝、人情歷練后才能掌握它。
 
 
When I was here at Chicago, we students by and large did not excel at intimacy. We were artful dodgers94, with a superb ability to slip out of situations at moments when deep heart to heart connection might come. We were in the business at age 20 or 21 of trying to make a good impression, so of course we weren’t going to show the unattractive sides of ourselves, which is an absolute prerequisite95 of intimacy.
我在芝大念書時,我們身為學生總體上都不太善于建立親密關系。我們非常善于逃避,尤其是回避那些心有靈犀般羈絆或將到來的場合。我們當時正忙著在二十歲出頭時一鳴驚人,自然不想展示自己平庸無奇的一面,可這正是建立親密關系的絕對前提。
 
We were busy with our work and our books and student activities, and we told ourselves, idiotically, that we didn’t have time for deep relationships. We too often approached each other shrouded96 in what Candace Vogler calls an “edifice of thought.” When confronted with uncertainty97 or a difficulty, we tended to revert98 to our strengths, which were our IQs and our thinking and talking skills. We sought to be masters of our life, rather than surrendering to emotions which are so much out of our control.
我們忙著學業、看書、參加學生活動。我們自以為是地認為,我們才沒空去建立什么交心的情感關系。我們幾乎總是在靠近彼此時,裹著一層坎迪斯·沃格勒稱之為“思維的虛假大廈”的東西。(注:芝大哲學教授,研究領域涉及倫理學,女性主義,社會政治哲學等等)當碰到不確定的情形或難關時,我們總愛借助于我們的強處,比如智商、思維能力、口才等。我們想成為自己生活的主宰者,而不是向我們幾乎無法控制的情緒繳械投降。
 
And the university didn’t help. The atmosphere at Chicago then was emotionally avoidant from the top down. Too much of life was defined by what could be discussed in the classroom, and everything else just fell by the wayside. There wasn’t enough dancing and drinking or any of the other activities that make diffidence possible. There wasn’t enough joint99 physical activity.
芝大在這件事上沒有幫上忙。彼時的芝大氛圍,從上到下都透著一股逃避情感話題的感覺。學習生活的主題是課堂上能討論什么,其他事情都會半途而廢。沒有什么舞會、酒會或是任何其他讓大家袒露真我的活動。當時也沒什么太多聯合的體育賽事。
 
Too much emphasis was put on scholarship and professionalism, and those things were defined by a pose of detachment, specialization, critical thinking, aloofness100 and a mythical101 belief in cool reasoning.
 
當時更多的是強調學術表現和職業素養,而這兩樣又主要表現為情感抽離、專業化、批判性思維、冷眼旁觀以及對冷靜推理的迷之執著。
 
Too much time was spent studying, which is solitary activity. Too much of student life was oriented around the Reg, and not because couples were fooling around in the stacks.
大部分時間都花在了學習上,基本上都是獨來獨往。過多的學生生活圍繞著圖書館,但原因不是因為情侶們在書架的掩護下談情說愛。
 
I left Chicago better at reading books than at reading people.
我離開芝大時,讀書的本事遠勝讀人。
 
I did not have the eyes to see the beauty in people who were so open hearted that they had nothing particularly interesting to say. I didn’t know how to handle the deepest and scariest intimacies102.
我的眼睛看不到善良誠懇之人身上的美,因為我那時覺得他們沒什么思想深度。我也不知道如何應對深刻卻又讓人生畏的親密關系。
 
I’m hoping I’m a little better. I’ve had some graduate tutors in this.
但愿我現在好一些了。觀眾席里有當時我的教學輔導。
 
Life will offer you a diminishing number of opportunities to show how smart you are. It will offer an infinite number of occasions that require kindness, mercy, grace, sensitivity, sympathy, generosity and love. Life will require that you widen your repertoire103 of emotions, that you throw yourself headlong into other people. That you take the curriculum of intimacy. If you haven’t mastered it yet, I ask you to turn to this task intentionally104 now.
隨著我們不斷長大,生活中可以證明自己有多聰明的機會變得越來越少。但生活中有無數個場合需要善良、仁慈、優雅、敏銳、同情、慷慨和愛。生活需要你拓寬自己情緒的全部曲目,需要你徑直去和他人打交道,需要你上一學期的親密關系課。如果你還未掌握它,我希望你現在就開始刻意準備吧。
 
So I’m asking one final thing of you members of the Class of 2017. Tomorrow you will graduate. And that is a great accomplishment. But before you do, I hope that tonight you will do one thing to cap your education. Go to the Regenstein with a special friend in your life. Find the spot deep in the stacks where Nietzsche’s “The Death of Tragedy” is found. But don’t open the book.
我最后還有一個希望,2017屆的同學們。明日你們即將畢業,這當然可喜可賀。但在明天到來之前,我希望今晚你能做一件錦上添花之事。和一位對你意義非凡的人一同去圖書館。在書堆的深處找到那本尼采的《悲劇的死亡》。但是不要翻開它。
 
Take off some of your clothes and fool around.
褪去幾件衣裳,邂逅美好時光
 
Thank you and God bless you.
謝謝,上帝保佑你們。



點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 inaugural 7cRzQ     
adj.就職的;n.就職典禮
參考例句:
  • We listened to the President's inaugural speech on the radio yesterday.昨天我們通過無線電聽了總統的就職演說。
  • Professor Pearson gave the inaugural lecture in the new lecture theatre.皮爾遜教授在新的階梯講堂發表了啟用演說。
2 gender slSyD     
n.(生理上的)性,(名詞、代詞等的)性
參考例句:
  • French differs from English in having gender for all nouns.法語不同于英語,所有的名詞都有性。
  • Women are sometimes denied opportunities solely because of their gender.婦女有時僅僅因為性別而無法獲得種種機會。
3 freshman 1siz9r     
n.大學一年級學生(可兼指男女)
參考例句:
  • Jack decided to live in during his freshman year at college.杰克決定大一時住校。
  • He is a freshman in the show business.他在演藝界是一名新手。
4 noted 5n4zXc     
adj.著名的,知名的
參考例句:
  • The local hotel is noted for its good table.當地的那家酒店以餐食精美而著稱。
  • Jim is noted for arriving late for work.吉姆上班遲到出了名。
5 futility IznyJ     
n.無用
參考例句:
  • She could see the utter futility of trying to protest. 她明白抗議是完全無用的。
  • The sheer futility of it all exasperates her. 它毫無用處,這讓她很生氣。
6 celebrity xcRyQ     
n.名人,名流;著名,名聲,名望
參考例句:
  • Tom found himself something of a celebrity. 湯姆意識到自己已小有名氣了。
  • He haunted famous men, hoping to get celebrity for himself. 他常和名人在一起, 希望借此使自己獲得名氣。
7 acclimated c0abb72c647f963fd22406def2d0342e     
v.使適應新環境,使服水土服水土,適應( acclimate的過去式和過去分詞 )
參考例句:
  • The rice has been acclimated in this area. 水稻已能適應這一地區的環境。 來自《現代英漢綜合大詞典》
  • Have you become acclimated to Taiwan yet? 你已適應臺灣的環境了嗎? 來自辭典例句
8 gateway GhFxY     
n.大門口,出入口,途徑,方法
參考例句:
  • Hard work is the gateway to success.努力工作是通往成功之路。
  • A man collected tolls at the gateway.一個人在大門口收通行費。
9 tempted b0182e969d369add1b9ce2353d3c6ad6     
v.慫恿(某人)干不正當的事;冒…的險(tempt的過去分詞)
參考例句:
  • I was sorely tempted to complain, but I didn't. 我極想發牢騷,但還是沒開口。
  • I was tempted by the dessert menu. 甜食菜單饞得我垂涎欲滴。
10 decided lvqzZd     
adj.決定了的,堅決的;明顯的,明確的
參考例句:
  • This gave them a decided advantage over their opponents.這使他們比對手具有明顯的優勢。
  • There is a decided difference between British and Chinese way of greeting.英國人和中國人打招呼的方式有很明顯的區別。
11 traumas 7da1e4c0a8ca7c0043a49c2bf2de8868     
n.心靈創傷( trauma的名詞復數 );損傷;痛苦經歷;挫折
參考例句:
  • She felt exhausted after the traumas of recent weeks. 她經受了最近幾個星期的痛苦之后感到精疲力竭。
  • Conclusion: Safety lens of spectacles can protect the occurrence of ocular traumas. 結論:安全鏡片可以預防眼鏡碎片所致的眼外傷。 來自互聯網
12 etiquette Xiyz0     
n.禮儀,禮節;規矩
參考例句:
  • The rules of etiquette are not so strict nowadays.如今的禮儀規則已不那么嚴格了。
  • According to etiquette,you should stand up to meet a guest.按照禮節你應該站起來接待客人。
13 bucks a391832ce78ebbcfc3ed483cc6d17634     
n.雄鹿( buck的名詞復數 );錢;(英國十九世紀初的)花花公子;(用于某些表達方式)責任v.(馬等)猛然弓背躍起( buck的第三人稱單數 );抵制;猛然震蕩;馬等尥起后蹄跳躍
參考例句:
  • They cost ten bucks. 這些值十元錢。
  • They are hunting for bucks. 他們正在獵雄兔。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
14 corporate 7olzl     
adj.共同的,全體的;公司的,企業的
參考例句:
  • This is our corporate responsibility.這是我們共同的責任。
  • His corporate's life will be as short as a rabbit's tail.他的公司的壽命是兔子尾巴長不了。
15 consultants c6fbb5ca6219111731f9c4c4d2675810     
顧問( consultant的名詞復數 ); 高級顧問醫生,會診醫生
參考例句:
  • a firm of management consultants 管理咨詢公司
  • There're many consultants in hospital. 醫院里有很多會診醫生。
16 navigate 4Gyxu     
v.航行,飛行;導航,領航
參考例句:
  • He was the first man to navigate the Atlantic by air.他是第一個飛越大西洋的人。
  • Such boats can navigate on the Nile.這種船可以在尼羅河上航行。
17 celibacy ScpyR     
n.獨身(主義)
參考例句:
  • People in some religious orders take a vow of celibacy. 有些宗教修會的人發誓不結婚。
  • The concept of celibacy carries connotations of asceticism and religious fervor. 修道者的獨身觀念含有禁欲與宗教熱情之意。
18 averting edcbf586a27cf6d086ae0f4d09219f92     
防止,避免( avert的現在分詞 ); 轉移
參考例句:
  • The margin of time for averting crisis was melting away. 可以用來消彌這一危機的些許時光正在逝去。
  • These results underscore the value of rescue medications in averting psychotic relapse. 這些結果顯示了救護性治療對避免精神病復發的價值。
19 intensity 45Ixd     
n.強烈,劇烈;強度;烈度
參考例句:
  • I didn't realize the intensity of people's feelings on this issue.我沒有意識到這一問題能引起群情激奮。
  • The strike is growing in intensity.罷工日益加劇。
20 intoxicating sqHzLB     
a. 醉人的,使人興奮的
參考例句:
  • Power can be intoxicating. 權力能讓人得意忘形。
  • On summer evenings the flowers gave forth an almost intoxicating scent. 夏日的傍晚,鮮花散發出醉人的芳香。
21 torrent 7GCyH     
n.激流,洪流;爆發,(話語等的)連發
參考例句:
  • The torrent scoured a channel down the hillside. 急流沿著山坡沖出了一條溝。
  • Her pent-up anger was released in a torrent of words.她壓抑的憤怒以滔滔不絕的話爆發了出來。
22 awed a0ab9008d911a954b6ce264ddc63f5c8     
adj.充滿敬畏的,表示敬畏的v.使敬畏,使驚懼( awe的過去式和過去分詞 )
參考例句:
  • The audience was awed into silence by her stunning performance. 觀眾席上鴉雀無聲,人們對他出色的表演感到驚嘆。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • I was awed by the huge gorilla. 那只大猩猩使我驚懼。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
23 reverence BByzT     
n.敬畏,尊敬,尊嚴;Reverence:對某些基督教神職人員的尊稱;v.尊敬,敬畏,崇敬
參考例句:
  • He was a bishop who was held in reverence by all.他是一位被大家都尊敬的主教。
  • We reverence tradition but will not be fettered by it.我們尊重傳統,但不被傳統所束縛。
24 glimmer 5gTxU     
v.發出閃爍的微光;n.微光,微弱的閃光
參考例句:
  • I looked at her and felt a glimmer of hope.我注視她,感到了一線希望。
  • A glimmer of amusement showed in her eyes.她的眼中露出一絲笑意。
25 intensities 6932348967a63a2a372931f9320087f3     
n.強烈( intensity的名詞復數 );(感情的)強烈程度;強度;烈度
參考例句:
  • At very high intensities, nuclear radiations cause itching and tingling of the skin. 當核輻射強度很高時,它能使皮膚感到發癢和刺痛。 來自辭典例句
  • They ask again and again in a variety of ways and intensities. 他們會以不同的方式和強度來不停地問,直到他得到自己想要的答案為止。 來自互聯網
26 proselytized bd491b5f70d627877de6b8af7c98298b     
v.(使)改變宗教信仰[政治信仰、意見等],使變節( proselytize的過去式和過去分詞 )
參考例句:
27 fervor sgEzr     
n.熱誠;熱心;熾熱
參考例句:
  • They were concerned only with their own religious fervor.他們只關心自己的宗教熱誠。
  • The speech aroused nationalist fervor.這個演講喚起了民族主義熱情。
28 legendary u1Vxg     
adj.傳奇(中)的,聞名遐邇的;n.傳奇(文學)
參考例句:
  • Legendary stories are passed down from parents to children.傳奇故事是由父母傳給孩子們的。
  • Odysseus was a legendary Greek hero.奧狄修斯是傳說中的希臘英雄。
29 mere rC1xE     
adj.純粹的;僅僅,只不過
參考例句:
  • That is a mere repetition of what you said before.那不過是重復了你以前講的話。
  • It's a mere waste of time waiting any longer.再等下去純粹是浪費時間。
30 accomplishment 2Jkyo     
n.完成,成就,(pl.)造詣,技能
參考例句:
  • The series of paintings is quite an accomplishment.這一系列的繪畫真是了不起的成就。
  • Money will be crucial to the accomplishment of our objectives.要實現我們的目標,錢是至關重要的。
31 forth Hzdz2     
adv.向前;向外,往外
參考例句:
  • The wind moved the trees gently back and forth.風吹得樹輕輕地來回搖晃。
  • He gave forth a series of works in rapid succession.他很快連續發表了一系列的作品。
32 oration PJixw     
n.演說,致辭,敘述法
參考例句:
  • He delivered an oration on the decline of family values.他發表了有關家庭價值觀的衰退的演說。
  • He was asked to deliver an oration at the meeting.他被邀請在會議上發表演說。
33 fathom w7wy3     
v.領悟,徹底了解
參考例句:
  • I really couldn't fathom what he was talking about.我真搞不懂他在說些什么。
  • What these people hoped to achieve is hard to fathom.這些人希望實現些什么目標難以揣測。
34 derived 6cddb7353e699051a384686b6b3ff1e2     
vi.起源;由來;衍生;導出v.得到( derive的過去式和過去分詞 );(從…中)得到獲得;源于;(從…中)提取
參考例句:
  • Many English words are derived from Latin and Greek. 英語很多詞源出于拉丁文和希臘文。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • He derived his enthusiasm for literature from his father. 他對文學的愛好是受他父親的影響。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
35 exhausted 7taz4r     
adj.極其疲憊的,精疲力盡的
參考例句:
  • It was a long haul home and we arrived exhausted.搬運回家的這段路程特別長,到家時我們已筋疲力盡。
  • Jenny was exhausted by the hustle of city life.珍妮被城市生活的忙亂弄得筋疲力盡。
36 blandly f411bffb7a3b98af8224e543d5078eb9     
adv.溫和地,殷勤地
參考例句:
  • There is a class of men in Bristol monstrously prejudiced against Blandly. 布里斯托爾有那么一幫人為此恨透了布蘭德利。 來自英漢文學 - 金銀島
  • \"Maybe you could get something in the stage line?\" he blandly suggested. “也許你能在戲劇這一行里找些事做,\"他和藹地提議道。 來自英漢文學 - 嘉莉妹妹
37 longing 98bzd     
n.(for)渴望
參考例句:
  • Hearing the tune again sent waves of longing through her.再次聽到那首曲子使她胸中充滿了渴望。
  • His heart burned with longing for revenge.他心中燃燒著急欲復仇的怒火。
38 longings 093806503fd3e66647eab74915c055e7     
渴望,盼望( longing的名詞復數 )
參考例句:
  • Ah, those foolish days of noble longings and of noble strivings! 啊,那些充滿高貴憧憬和高尚奮斗的傻乎乎的時光!
  • I paint you and fashion you ever with my love longings. 我永遠用愛戀的渴想來描畫你。
39 straightforward fFfyA     
adj.正直的,坦率的;易懂的,簡單的
參考例句:
  • A straightforward talk is better than a flowery speech.巧言不如直說。
  • I must insist on your giving me a straightforward answer.我一定要你給我一個直截了當的回答。
40 arenas 199b9126e4f57770e1c427caf458ae03     
表演場地( arena的名詞復數 ); 競技場; 活動或斗爭的場所或場面; 圓形運動場
參考例句:
  • Demolition derbies are large-scale automobile rodeos that take place in big arenas. 撞車比賽指的是在很大的競技場上舉行的大型汽車駕駛技術表演。
  • Are there areas of privacy in the most public of arenas? 在絕大部分公開的場合中存在需要保護隱私的領域嗎?
41 narcissism 9FSxQ     
n.自我陶醉,自戀
參考例句:
  • Those who suffer from narcissism become self-absorbed.自戀的人會變得自私。
  • The collective narcissism of the Kerouac circle is ultimately boring.凱魯亞克和他周圍人物的集體自我陶醉欲最終使人厭煩不已。
42 trump LU1zK     
n.王牌,法寶;v.打出王牌,吹喇叭
參考例句:
  • He was never able to trump up the courage to have a showdown.他始終鼓不起勇氣攤牌。
  • The coach saved his star player for a trump card.教練保留他的明星選手,作為他的王牌。
43 presidency J1HzD     
n.總統(校長,總經理)的職位(任期)
參考例句:
  • Roosevelt was elected four times to the presidency of the United States.羅斯福連續當選四屆美國總統。
  • Two candidates are emerging as contestants for the presidency.兩位候選人最終成為總統職位競爭者。
44 breakdown cS0yx     
n.垮,衰竭;損壞,故障,倒塌
參考例句:
  • She suffered a nervous breakdown.她患神經衰弱。
  • The plane had a breakdown in the air,but it was fortunately removed by the ace pilot.飛機在空中發生了故障,但幸運的是被王牌駕駛員排除了。
45 virtue BpqyH     
n.德行,美德;貞操;優點;功效,效力
參考例句:
  • He was considered to be a paragon of virtue.他被認為是品德盡善盡美的典范。
  • You need to decorate your mind with virtue.你應該用德行美化心靈。
46 virtues cd5228c842b227ac02d36dd986c5cd53     
美德( virtue的名詞復數 ); 德行; 優點; 長處
參考例句:
  • Doctors often extol the virtues of eating less fat. 醫生常常宣揚少吃脂肪的好處。
  • She delivered a homily on the virtues of family life. 她進行了一場家庭生活美德方面的說教。
47 purely 8Sqxf     
adv.純粹地,完全地
參考例句:
  • I helped him purely and simply out of friendship.我幫他純粹是出于友情。
  • This disproves the theory that children are purely imitative.這證明認為兒童只會單純地模仿的理論是站不住腳的。
48 yearning hezzPJ     
a.渴望的;向往的;懷念的
參考例句:
  • a yearning for a quiet life 對寧靜生活的向往
  • He felt a great yearning after his old job. 他對過去的工作有一種強烈的渴想。
49 generosity Jf8zS     
n.大度,慷慨,慷慨的行為
參考例句:
  • We should match their generosity with our own.我們應該像他們一樣慷慨大方。
  • We adore them for their generosity.我們欽佩他們的慷慨。
50 awareness 4yWzdW     
n.意識,覺悟,懂事,明智
參考例句:
  • There is a general awareness that smoking is harmful.人們普遍認識到吸煙有害健康。
  • Environmental awareness has increased over the years.這些年來人們的環境意識增強了。
51 solitary 7FUyx     
adj.孤獨的,獨立的,荒涼的;n.隱士
參考例句:
  • I am rather fond of a solitary stroll in the country.我頗喜歡在鄉間獨自徜徉。
  • The castle rises in solitary splendour on the fringe of the desert.這座城堡巍然聳立在沙漠的邊際,顯得十分壯美。
52 embarking 7f8892f8b0a1076133045fdfbf3b8512     
乘船( embark的現在分詞 ); 裝載; 從事
參考例句:
  • He's embarking on a new career as a writer. 他即將開始新的職業生涯——當一名作家。
  • The campaign on which were embarking was backed up by such intricate and detailed maintenance arrangemets. 我們實施的戰爭,須要如此復雜及詳細的維護準備。
53 humane Uymy0     
adj.人道的,富有同情心的
參考例句:
  • Is it humane to kill animals for food?宰殺牲畜來吃合乎人道嗎?
  • Their aim is for a more just and humane society.他們的目標是建立一個更加公正、博愛的社會。
54 pretentious lSrz3     
adj.自命不凡的,自負的,炫耀的
參考例句:
  • He is a talented but pretentious writer.他是一個有才華但自命不凡的作家。
  • Speaking well of yourself would only make you appear conceited and pretentious.自夸只會使你顯得自負和虛偽。
55 penetrating ImTzZS     
adj.(聲音)響亮的,尖銳的adj.(氣味)刺激的adj.(思想)敏銳的,有洞察力的
參考例句:
  • He had an extraordinarily penetrating gaze. 他的目光有股異乎尋常的洞察力。
  • He examined the man with a penetrating gaze. 他以銳利的目光仔細觀察了那個人。
56 ignoble HcUzb     
adj.不光彩的,卑鄙的;可恥的
參考例句:
  • There's something cowardly and ignoble about such an attitude.這種態度有點怯懦可鄙。
  • Some very great men have come from ignoble families.有些偉人出身低微。
57 arduous 5vxzd     
adj.艱苦的,費力的,陡峭的
參考例句:
  • We must have patience in doing arduous work.我們做艱苦的工作要有耐性。
  • The task was more arduous than he had calculated.這項任務比他所估計的要艱巨得多。
58 exalted ztiz6f     
adj.(地位等)高的,崇高的;尊貴的,高尚的
參考例句:
  • Their loveliness and holiness in accordance with their exalted station.他們的美麗和圣潔也與他們的崇高地位相稱。
  • He received respect because he was a person of exalted rank.他因為是個地位崇高的人而受到尊敬。
59 profusion e1JzW     
n.揮霍;豐富
參考例句:
  • He is liberal to profusion.他揮霍無度。
  • The leaves are falling in profusion.落葉紛紛。
60 fusion HfDz5     
n.溶化;熔解;熔化狀態,熔和;熔接
參考例句:
  • Brass is formed by the fusion of copper and zinc. 黃銅是通過銅和鋅的熔合而成的。
  • This alloy is formed by the fusion of two types of metal.這種合金是用兩種金屬熔合而成的。
61 patriotism 63lzt     
n.愛國精神,愛國心,愛國主義
參考例句:
  • His new book is a demonstration of his patriotism.他寫的新書是他的愛國精神的證明。
  • They obtained money under the false pretenses of patriotism.他們以虛偽的愛國主義為借口獲得金錢。
62 injustice O45yL     
n.非正義,不公正,不公平,侵犯(別人的)權利
參考例句:
  • They complained of injustice in the way they had been treated.他們抱怨受到不公平的對待。
  • All his life he has been struggling against injustice.他一生都在與不公正現象作斗爭。
63 secular GZmxM     
n.牧師,凡人;adj.世俗的,現世的,不朽的
參考例句:
  • We live in an increasingly secular society.我們生活在一個日益非宗教的社會。
  • Britain is a plural society in which the secular predominates.英國是個世俗主導的多元社會。
64 yearns 7534bd99979b274a3e611926f9c7ea38     
渴望,切盼,向往( yearn的第三人稱單數 )
參考例句:
  • Every man yearns for sympathy in sorrow. 每個遇到不幸的人都渴望得到同情。
  • What I dread is to get into a rut. One yearns for freshness of thought and ideas. 我害怕的就是墨守成規。人總是向往新思想和新觀念的。
65 worthy vftwB     
adj.(of)值得的,配得上的;有價值的
參考例句:
  • I did not esteem him to be worthy of trust.我認為他不值得信賴。
  • There occurred nothing that was worthy to be mentioned.沒有值得一提的事發生。
66 penetrates 6e705c7f6e3a55a0a85919c8773759e9     
v.穿過( penetrate的第三人稱單數 );刺入;了解;滲透
參考例句:
  • This is a telescope that penetrates to the remote parts of the universe. 這是一架能看到宇宙中遙遠地方的望遠鏡。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • The dust is so fine that it easily penetrates all the buildings. 塵土極細,能極輕易地鉆入一切建筑物。 來自辭典例句
67 thither cgRz1o     
adv.向那里;adj.在那邊的,對岸的
參考例句:
  • He wandered hither and thither looking for a playmate.他逛來逛去找玩伴。
  • He tramped hither and thither.他到處流浪。
68 ardent yvjzd     
adj.熱情的,熱烈的,強烈的,烈性的
參考例句:
  • He's an ardent supporter of the local football team.他是本地足球隊的熱情支持者。
  • Ardent expectations were held by his parents for his college career.他父母對他的大學學習抱著殷切的期望。
69 solely FwGwe     
adv.僅僅,唯一地
參考例句:
  • Success should not be measured solely by educational achievement.成功與否不應只用學業成績來衡量。
  • The town depends almost solely on the tourist trade.這座城市幾乎完全靠旅游業維持。
70 forum cilx0     
n.論壇,討論會
參考例句:
  • They're holding a forum on new ways of teaching history.他們正在舉行歷史教學討論會。
  • The organisation would provide a forum where problems could be discussed.這個組織將提供一個可以討論問題的平臺。
71 setback XzuwD     
n.退步,挫折,挫敗
參考例句:
  • Since that time there has never been any setback in his career.從那時起他在事業上一直沒有遇到周折。
  • She views every minor setback as a disaster.她把每個較小的挫折都看成重大災難。
72 collapse aWvyE     
vi.累倒;昏倒;倒塌;塌陷
參考例句:
  • The country's economy is on the verge of collapse.國家的經濟已到了崩潰的邊緣。
  • The engineer made a complete diagnosis of the bridge's collapse.工程師對橋的倒塌做了一次徹底的調查分析。
73 compensate AXky7     
vt.補償,賠償;酬報 vi.彌補;補償;抵消
參考例句:
  • She used her good looks to compensate her lack of intelligence. 她利用她漂亮的外表來彌補智力的不足。
  • Nothing can compensate for the loss of one's health. 一個人失去了鍵康是不可彌補的。
74 addiction JyEzS     
n.上癮入迷,嗜好
參考例句:
  • He stole money from his parents to feed his addiction.他從父母那兒偷錢以滿足自己的嗜好。
  • Areas of drug dealing are hellholes of addiction,poverty and murder.販賣毒品的地區往往是吸毒上癮、貧困和發生謀殺的地方。
75 isolation 7qMzTS     
n.隔離,孤立,分解,分離
參考例句:
  • The millionaire lived in complete isolation from the outside world.這位富翁過著與世隔絕的生活。
  • He retired and lived in relative isolation.他退休后,生活比較孤寂。
76 orientation IJ4xo     
n.方向,目標;熟悉,適應,情況介紹
參考例句:
  • Children need some orientation when they go to school.小孩子上學時需要適應。
  • The traveller found his orientation with the aid of a good map.旅行者借助一幅好地圖得知自己的方向。
77 mainstream AoCzh9     
n.(思想或行為的)主流;adj.主流的
參考例句:
  • Their views lie outside the mainstream of current medical opinion.他們的觀點不屬于當今醫學界觀點的主流。
  • Polls are still largely reflects the mainstream sentiment.民調還在很大程度上反映了社會主流情緒。
78 miseries c95fd996533633d2e276d3dd66941888     
n.痛苦( misery的名詞復數 );痛苦的事;窮困;常發牢騷的人
參考例句:
  • They forgot all their fears and all their miseries in an instant. 他們馬上忘記了一切恐懼和痛苦。 來自《現代漢英綜合大詞典》
  • I'm suffering the miseries of unemployment. 我正為失業而痛苦。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
79 briefly 9Styo     
adv.簡單地,簡短地
參考例句:
  • I want to touch briefly on another aspect of the problem.我想簡單地談一下這個問題的另一方面。
  • He was kidnapped and briefly detained by a terrorist group.他被一個恐怖組織綁架并短暫拘禁。
80 fixed JsKzzj     
adj.固定的,不變的,準備好的;(計算機)固定的
參考例句:
  • Have you two fixed on a date for the wedding yet?你們倆選定婚期了嗎?
  • Once the aim is fixed,we should not change it arbitrarily.目標一旦確定,我們就不應該隨意改變。
81 intimacy z4Vxx     
n.熟悉,親密,密切關系,親昵的言行
參考例句:
  • His claims to an intimacy with the President are somewhat exaggerated.他聲稱自己與總統關系密切,這有點言過其實。
  • I wish there were a rule book for intimacy.我希望能有個關于親密的規則。
82 passionately YmDzQ4     
ad.熱烈地,激烈地
參考例句:
  • She could hate as passionately as she could love. 她能恨得咬牙切齒,也能愛得一往情深。
  • He was passionately addicted to pop music. 他酷愛流行音樂。
83 devoted xu9zka     
adj.忠誠的,忠實的,熱心的,獻身于...的
參考例句:
  • He devoted his life to the educational cause of the motherland.他為祖國的教育事業貢獻了一生。
  • We devoted a lengthy and full discussion to this topic.我們對這個題目進行了長時間的充分討論。
84 spouse Ah6yK     
n.配偶(指夫或妻)
參考例句:
  • Her spouse will come to see her on Sunday.她的丈夫星期天要來看她。
  • What is the best way to keep your spouse happy in the marriage?在婚姻中保持配偶幸福的最好方法是什么?
85 vocation 8h6wB     
n.職業,行業
參考例句:
  • She struggled for years to find her true vocation.她多年來苦苦尋找真正適合自己的職業。
  • She felt it was her vocation to minister to the sick.她覺得照料病人是她的天職。
86 dedication pxMx9     
n.奉獻,獻身,致力,題獻,獻辭
參考例句:
  • We admire her courage,compassion and dedication.我們欽佩她的勇氣、愛心和奉獻精神。
  • Her dedication to her work was admirable.她對工作的奉獻精神可欽可佩。
87 humble ddjzU     
adj.謙卑的,恭順的;地位低下的;v.降低,貶低
參考例句:
  • In my humble opinion,he will win the election.依我拙見,他將在選舉中獲勝。
  • Defeat and failure make people humble.挫折與失敗會使人謙卑。
88 enticing ctkzkh     
adj.迷人的;誘人的
參考例句:
  • The offer was too enticing to refuse. 這提議太有誘惑力,使人難以拒絕。
  • Her neck was short but rounded and her arms plump and enticing. 她的脖子短,但渾圓可愛;兩臂豐腴,也很動人。
89 ominous Xv6y5     
adj.不祥的,不吉的,預兆的,預示的
參考例句:
  • Those black clouds look ominous for our picnic.那些烏云對我們的野餐來說是個不祥之兆。
  • There was an ominous silence at the other end of the phone.電話那頭出現了不祥的沉默。
90 prospect P01zn     
n.前景,前途;景色,視野
參考例句:
  • This state of things holds out a cheerful prospect.事態呈現出可喜的前景。
  • The prospect became more evident.前景變得更加明朗了。
91 proximity 5RsxM     
n.接近,鄰近
參考例句:
  • Marriages in proximity of blood are forbidden by the law.法律規定禁止近親結婚。
  • Their house is in close proximity to ours.他們的房子很接近我們的。
92 entity vo8xl     
n.實體,獨立存在體,實際存在物
參考例句:
  • The country is no longer one political entity.這個國家不再是一個統一的政治實體了。
  • As a separate legal entity,the corporation must pay taxes.作為一個獨立的法律實體,公司必須納稅。
93 merged d33b2d33223e1272c8bbe02180876e6f     
(使)混合( merge的過去式和過去分詞 ); 相融; 融入; 漸漸消失在某物中
參考例句:
  • Turf wars are inevitable when two departments are merged. 兩個部門合并時總免不了爭爭權限。
  • The small shops were merged into a large market. 那些小商店合并成為一個大商場。
94 dodgers 755721a92560aef54a57a481bf981739     
n.躲閃者,欺瞞者( dodger的名詞復數 )
參考例句:
  • a crackdown on fare dodgers on trains 對火車逃票者的嚴厲打擊
  • But Twain, Howells, and James were jeeringly described by Mencken as "draft-dodgers". 不過吐溫、豪威爾斯和詹姆斯都是被門肯譏誚地叫做“逃避兵役的人! 來自辭典例句
95 prerequisite yQCxu     
n.先決條件;adj.作為前提的,必備的
參考例句:
  • Stability and unity are a prerequisite to the four modernizations.安定團結是實現四個現代化的前提。
  • It is a prerequisite of entry to the profession that you pass the exams.做這一行的先決條件是要通過了有關的考試。
96 shrouded 6b3958ee6e7b263c722c8b117143345f     
v.隱瞞( shroud的過去式和過去分詞 );保密
參考例句:
  • The hills were shrouded in mist . 這些小山被籠罩在薄霧之中。
  • The towers were shrouded in mist. 城樓被蒙上薄霧。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
97 uncertainty NlFwK     
n.易變,靠不住,不確知,不確定的事物
參考例句:
  • Her comments will add to the uncertainty of the situation.她的批評將會使局勢更加不穩定。
  • After six weeks of uncertainty,the strain was beginning to take its toll.6個星期的忐忑不安后,壓力開始產生影響了。
98 revert OBwzV     
v.恢復,復歸,回到
參考例句:
  • Let us revert to the earlier part of the chapter.讓我們回到本章的前面部分。
  • Shall we revert to the matter we talked about yesterday?我們接著昨天談過的問題談,好嗎?
99 joint m3lx4     
adj.聯合的,共同的;n.關節,接合處;v.連接,貼合
參考例句:
  • I had a bad fall,which put my shoulder out of joint.我重重地摔了一跤,肩膀脫臼了。
  • We wrote a letter in joint names.我們聯名寫了封信。
100 aloofness 25ca9c51f6709fb14da321a67a42da8a     
超然態度
參考例句:
  • Why should I have treated him with such sharp aloofness? 但我為什么要給人一些嚴厲,一些端莊呢? 來自漢英文學 - 中國現代小說
  • He had an air of haughty aloofness. 他有一種高傲的神情。 來自辭典例句
101 mythical 4FrxJ     
adj.神話的;虛構的;想像的
參考例句:
  • Undeniably,he is a man of mythical status.不可否認,他是一個神話般的人物。
  • Their wealth is merely mythical.他們的財富完全是虛構的。
102 intimacies 9fa125f68d20eba1de1ddb9d215b31cd     
親密( intimacy的名詞復數 ); 密切; 親昵的言行; 性行為
參考例句:
  • He is exchanging intimacies with his friends. 他正在和密友們親切地交談。
  • The stiffness of the meeting soon gave way before their popular manners and more diffused intimacies. 他們的灑脫不羈和親密氣氛的增加很快驅散了會場上的拘謹。
103 repertoire 2BCze     
n.(準備好演出的)節目,保留劇目;(計算機的)指令表,指令系統, <美>(某個人的)全部技能;清單,指令表
參考例句:
  • There is an extensive repertoire of music written for the flute.有很多供長笛演奏的曲目。
  • He has added considerably to his piano repertoire.他的鋼琴演奏曲目大大增加了。
104 intentionally 7qOzFn     
ad.故意地,有意地
參考例句:
  • I didn't say it intentionally. 我是無心說的。
  • The local authority ruled that he had made himself intentionally homeless and was therefore not entitled to be rehoused. 當地政府裁定他是有意居無定所,因此沒有資格再獲得提供住房。
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