TED演講:是什么造就了長城的無與倫比
文章來源:未知 文章作者:enread 發布時間:2020-04-02 08:42 字體: [ ]  進入論壇
(單詞翻譯:雙擊或拖選)
TED演講:是什么造就了長城的無與倫比,好好學習下,下次向外國朋友介紹的長城的話就不會沒有話說了。
A 13,000 mile dragon of earth and stone winds its way through the countryside of China 一條1萬3英里的土石之龍蜿蜒于中國鄉野之間,
with a history almost as long and serpentine1 as the structure. 它的歷史幾乎與其結構一樣悠久曲折。
The Great Wall began as multiple walls of rammed2 earth built by individual feudal3 states during the Chunqiu period 長城最初是多座泥土夯實的城墻,由春秋戰國時期的各個獨立封建國家修筑,
to protect against nomadic4 raiders north of China and each other. 以抵制中國北方游牧民和其它國家。
When Emperor Qin Shi Huang unified5 the states in 221 BCE, 公元前221年,秦始皇統一中國時,
the Tibetan Plateau and Pacific Ocean became natural barriers, 青藏高原和太平洋成為了國家的天然屏障,
but the mountains in the north remained vulnerable to Mongol, Turkish, and Xiongnu invasions. 但北方的山脈對于蒙古、土耳其及匈奴人的入侵來說顯得非常薄弱。
To defend against them, the Emperor expanded the small walls built by his predecessors6, 為了抵御外敵,秦始皇擴建了之前所筑建的小城墻,
connecting some and fortifying7 others. 把它們鞏固強化并加以連接。
As the structures grew from Lintao in the west to Liaodong in the east, 城墻起于西部臨洮,止于東部遼東,
they collectively became known as The Long Wall. 合在一起稱為長城。
To accomplish this task, the Emperor enlisted8 soldiers and commoners, not always voluntarily. 為了完成這項工程,秦始皇征召了士兵和平民,而他們往往不是出于自愿。
Of the hundreds of thousands of builders recorded during the Qin Dynasty, 在秦朝記錄的成千上萬建造者中,
many were forcibly conscripted peasants and others were criminals serving out sentences. 許多人都是被強征而去的農民,另外一些則是服刑犯人。
Under the Han Dynasty, the wall grew longer still, reaching 3700 miles, 漢朝時期,長城繼續擴建延長至3700英里,
and spanning from Dunhuang to the Bohai Sea. 從敦煌延伸到渤海。
Forced labor9 continued under the Han Emperor Han-Wudi,  強制性勞動在漢武帝時期持續著,
and the walls reputation grew into a notorious place of suffering. 因而城墻被視作受苦受害之地,從而臭名昭彰。
Poems and legends of the time told of laborers10 buried in nearby mass graves, or even within the wall itself. 那一時期的詩歌與傳說描述了勞動者被掩埋于附近的大規模墓地甚至是城墻內。
And while no human remains11 have been found inside, grave pits do 然而城墻內并未發現人類尸骸墓坑,
indicate that many workers died from accidents, hunger and exhaustion12. 表明那些勞動者大多死于意外、饑餓與疲勞。
The wall was formidable but not invincible13. 長城令人生畏卻非不可戰勝。
Both Genghis and his son Khublai Khan managed to surmount14 the wall during the Mongol invasion of the 13th Century. 成吉思汗和他的兒子忽必烈曾于13世紀蒙古侵入之際設法攻克城墻。
After the Ming dynasty gained control in 1368, 1368年明朝執政之后,
they began to refortify and further consolidate15 the wall using bricks and stones from local kilns16. 他們開始使用當地窯中燒制而成的磚與石頭重新強化和加固長城。
Averaging 23 feet high and 21 feet wide, the walls 5500 miles were punctuated17 by watchtowers. 長城平均高7米,寬6米,5500英里的城墻中間隔著瞭望臺。
When raiders were sighted, fire and smoke signals traveled between towers until reinforcements arrived. 一旦看到有侵入者,瞭望臺之間便會用升起的狼煙與風火傳遞信號,直到援兵抵達。
Small openings along the wall let archers18 fire on invaders19, 城墻上的小孔讓弓箭手能夠射擊侵入者,
while larger ones were used to drop stones and more. 而大孔則用于投擲石頭或者其它東西。
But even this new and improved wall was not enough. 但即便是這種全新改進的城墻仍然不夠好。
In 1644, northern Manchu clans20 overthrew21 the Ming to establish the Qing dynasty, incorporating Mongolia as well, 1644年,北方滿族推翻明朝建立清朝,同時合并了蒙古。
Thus, for the second time, China was ruled by the very people the wall had tried to keep out. 因此,這是中國第二次被城墻抵御的外族統治。
With the empire's borders now extending beyond the Great Wall, the fortifications lost their purpose. 隨著帝國邊界擴展到長城以外,這些工事失去了原本的目的。
And without regular reinforcement, the wall fell into disrepair, rammed earth eroded22, 沒有了定期加固,城墻失修破損,夯土被侵蝕,
while brick and stone were plundered23 for building materials. But its job wasn't finished. 磚和石頭則被盜竊用作建筑材料,但是長城的使命仍未結束。
During World War II, China used sections for defense24 against Japanese invasion, 第二次世界大戰期間,中國用部分城墻來抵御日本侵略,
and some parts are still rumored25 to be used for military training. 一部分城墻仍然被盛傳用于軍事訓練。
But the Wall's main purpose today is cultural. 然而今日,文化才是長城的主要目的。
As one of the largest man-made structures on Earth, 作為地球上大型人工建筑之一,
it was granted UNESCO World Heritage Status in 1987. 長城于1987年被聯合國教科文組織列為世界文化遺產。
Originally built to keep people out of China, the Great Wall now welcomes millions of visitors each year. 長城起初建造用于防御外人進入中國,如今每年都會迎接數百萬游客。
In fact, the influx26 of tourists has caused the wall to deteriorate27, 實際上,大量涌入的游客已導致長城日益損壞,
leading the Chinese government to launch preservation28 initiatives. 致使中國政府啟動保護措施。
It's also often acclaimed29 as the only man-made structure visible from space. 它也經常被宣稱為唯一一處可自太空看見的人造建筑。
Unfortunately, that's not at all true. 不幸的是,這種說法不完全正確。
In low Earth orbit, all sorts of structures, like bridges, highways and airports are visible, 在地球低軌道上,各種建筑物如橋梁、高速公路以及機場均可看見,
and the Great Wall is only barely discernible. 而長城卻若隱若現。
From the moon, it doesn't stand a chance. 從月球上,它則一點也看不到。
But regardless, it's the Earth we should be studying it from because new sections are still discovered every few years,  但無論如何,地球才是我們應該好好研究長城的地方,因為每隔幾年都會有新的部分被發現,
branching off from the main body and expanding this remarkable30 monument to human achievement. 它們從主體部分擴展開去,不斷延伸著這見證人類成就的偉大奇跡。



點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 serpentine MEgzx     
adj.蜿蜒的,彎曲的
參考例句:
  • One part of the Serpentine is kept for swimmers.蜿蜒河的一段劃為游泳區。
  • Tremolite laths and serpentine minerals are present in places.有的地方出現透閃石板條及蛇紋石。
2 rammed 99b2b7e6fc02f63b92d2b50ea750a532     
v.夯實(土等)( ram的過去式和過去分詞 );猛撞;猛壓;反復灌輸
參考例句:
  • Two passengers were injured when their taxi was rammed from behind by a bus. 公共汽車從后面撞來,出租車上的兩位乘客受了傷。
  • I rammed down the earth around the newly-planted tree. 我將新栽的樹周圍的土搗硬。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
3 feudal cg1zq     
adj.封建的,封地的,領地的
參考例句:
  • Feudal rulers ruled over the country several thousand years.封建統治者統治這個國家幾千年。
  • The feudal system lasted for two thousand years in China.封建制度在中國延續了兩千年之久。
4 nomadic 0H5xx     
adj.流浪的;游牧的
參考例句:
  • This tribe still live a nomadic life.這個民族仍然過著游牧生活。
  • The plowing culture and the nomadic culture are two traditional principal cultures in China.農耕文化與游牧文化是我國傳統的兩大主體文化。
5 unified 40b03ccf3c2da88cc503272d1de3441c     
(unify 的過去式和過去分詞); 統一的; 統一標準的; 一元化的
參考例句:
  • The teacher unified the answer of her pupil with hers. 老師核對了學生的答案。
  • The First Emperor of Qin unified China in 221 B.C. 秦始皇于公元前221年統一中國。
6 predecessors b59b392832b9ce6825062c39c88d5147     
n.前任( predecessor的名詞復數 );前輩;(被取代的)原有事物;前身
參考例句:
  • The new government set about dismantling their predecessors' legislation. 新政府正著手廢除其前任所制定的法律。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • Will new plan be any more acceptable than its predecessors? 新計劃比原先的計劃更能令人滿意嗎? 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
7 fortifying 74f03092477ce02d5a404c4756ead70e     
筑防御工事于( fortify的現在分詞 ); 筑堡于; 增強; 強化(食品)
參考例句:
  • Fortifying executive function and restraining impulsivity are possible with active interventions. 積極干預可能有助加強執行功能和抑制沖動性。
  • Vingo stopped looking, tightening his face, fortifying himself against still another disappointment. 文戈不再張望,他繃緊臉,仿佛正在鼓足勇氣準備迎接另一次失望似的。
8 enlisted 2d04964099d0ec430db1d422c56be9e2     
adj.應募入伍的v.(使)入伍, (使)參軍( enlist的過去式和過去分詞 );獲得(幫助或支持)
參考例句:
  • enlisted men and women 男兵和女兵
  • He enlisted with the air force to fight against the enemy. 他應募加入空軍對敵作戰。 來自《現代漢英綜合大詞典》
9 labor P9Tzs     
n.勞動,努力,工作,勞工;分娩;vi.勞動,努力,苦干;vt.詳細分析;麻煩
參考例句:
  • We are never late in satisfying him for his labor.我們從不延誤付給他勞動報酬。
  • He was completely spent after two weeks of hard labor.艱苦勞動兩周后,他已經疲憊不堪了。
10 laborers c8c6422086151d6c0ae2a95777108e3c     
n.體力勞動者,工人( laborer的名詞復數 );(熟練工人的)輔助工
參考例句:
  • Laborers were trained to handle 50-ton compactors and giant cranes. 工人們接受操作五十噸壓土機和巨型起重機的訓練。 來自《現代英漢綜合大詞典》
  • Wage-labour rests exclusively on competition between the laborers. 雇傭勞動完全是建立在工人的自相競爭之上的。 來自英漢非文學 - 共產黨宣言
11 remains 1kMzTy     
n.剩余物,殘留物;遺體,遺跡
參考例句:
  • He ate the remains of food hungrily.他狼吞虎咽地吃剩余的食物。
  • The remains of the meal were fed to the dog.殘羹剩飯喂狗了。
12 exhaustion OPezL     
n.耗盡枯竭,疲憊,筋疲力盡,竭盡,詳盡無遺的論述
參考例句:
  • She slept the sleep of exhaustion.她因疲勞而酣睡。
  • His exhaustion was obvious when he fell asleep standing.他站著睡著了,顯然是太累了。
13 invincible 9xMyc     
adj.不可征服的,難以制服的
參考例句:
  • This football team was once reputed to be invincible.這支足球隊曾被譽為無敵的勁旅。
  • The workers are invincible as long as they hold together.只要工人團結一致,他們就是不可戰勝的。
14 surmount Lrqwh     
vt.克服;置于…頂上
參考例句:
  • We have many problems to surmount before we can start the project.我們得克服許多困難才能著手做這項工作。
  • We are fully confident that we can surmount these difficulties.我們完全相信我們能夠克服這些困難。
15 consolidate XYkyV     
v.使加固,使加強;(把...)聯為一體,合并
參考例句:
  • The two banks will consolidate in July next year. 這兩家銀行明年7月將合并。
  • The government hoped to consolidate ten states to form three new ones.政府希望把十個州合并成三個新的州。
16 kilns a783251ff4c9ad3d87dce8463073429b     
n.窯( kiln的名詞復數 );燒窯工人
參考例句:
  • Bricks and earthware articles are baked in kilns. 磚和陶器都是在窯中燒成的。 來自辭典例句
  • The bricks are baking in the kilns. ?里正在燒磚。 來自辭典例句
17 punctuated 7bd3039c345abccc3ac40a4e434df484     
v.(在文字中)加標點符號,加標點( punctuate的過去式和過去分詞 );不時打斷某事物
參考例句:
  • Her speech was punctuated by bursts of applause. 她的講演不時被陣陣掌聲打斷。
  • The audience punctuated his speech by outbursts of applause. 聽眾不時以陣陣掌聲打斷他的講話。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
18 archers 79516825059e33df150af52884504ced     
n.弓箭手,射箭運動員( archer的名詞復數 )
參考例句:
  • The next evening old Mr. Sillerton Jackson came to dine with the Archers. 第二天晚上,西勒頓?杰克遜老先生來和阿切爾家人一起吃飯。 來自辭典例句
  • Week of Archer: Double growth for Archers and Marksmen. 射手周:弓箭手與弩手(人類)產量加倍。 來自互聯網
19 invaders 5f4b502b53eb551c767b8cce3965af9f     
入侵者,侵略者,侵入物( invader的名詞復數 )
參考例句:
  • They prepared to repel the invaders. 他們準備趕走侵略軍。
  • The family has traced its ancestry to the Norman invaders. 這個家族將自己的世系追溯到諾曼征服者。
20 clans 107c1b7606090bbd951aa9bdcf1d209e     
宗族( clan的名詞復數 ); 氏族; 龐大的家族; 宗派
參考例句:
  • There are many clans in European countries. 歐洲國家有很多黨派。
  • The women were the great power among the clans [gentes], as everywhere else. 婦女在克蘭〈氏族〉里,乃至一般在任何地方,都有很大的勢力。 來自英漢非文學 - 家庭、私有制和國家的起源
21 overthrew dd5ffd99a6b4c9da909dc8baf50ba04a     
overthrow的過去式
參考例句:
  • The people finally rose up and overthrew the reactionary regime. 人們終于起來把反動的政權推翻了。
  • They overthrew their King. 他們推翻了國王。
22 eroded f1d64e7cb6e68a5e1444e173c24e672e     
adj. 被侵蝕的,有蝕痕的 動詞erode的過去式和過去分詞形式
參考例句:
  • The cliff face has been steadily eroded by the sea. 峭壁表面逐漸被海水侵蝕。
  • The stream eroded a channel in the solid rock. 小溪在硬石中侵蝕成一條水道。
23 plundered 02a25bdd3ac6ea3804fb41777f366245     
掠奪,搶劫( plunder的過去式和過去分詞 )
參考例句:
  • Many of our cultural treasures have been plundered by imperialists. 我國許多珍貴文物被帝國主義掠走了。
  • The imperialists plundered many valuable works of art. 帝國主義列強掠奪了許多珍貴的藝術品。
24 defense AxbxB     
n.防御,保衛;[pl.]防務工事;辯護,答辯
參考例句:
  • The accused has the right to defense.被告人有權獲得辯護。
  • The war has impacted the area with military and defense workers.戰爭使那個地區擠滿了軍隊和防御工程人員。
25 rumored 08cff0ed52506f6d38c3eaeae1b51033     
adj.傳說的,謠傳的v.傳聞( rumor的過去式和過去分詞 );[古]名譽;咕噥;[古]喧嚷
參考例句:
  • It is rumored that he cheats on his wife. 據傳他對他老婆不忠。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • It was rumored that the white officer had been a Swede. 傳說那個白人軍官是個瑞典人。 來自辭典例句
26 influx c7lxL     
n.流入,注入
參考例句:
  • The country simply cannot absorb this influx of refugees.這個國家實在不能接納這么多涌入的難民。
  • Textile workers favoured protection because they feared an influx of cheap cloth.紡織工人擁護貿易保護措施,因為他們擔心涌入廉價紡織品。
27 deteriorate Zm8zW     
v.變壞;惡化;退化
參考例句:
  • Do you think relations between China and Japan will continue to deteriorate?你認為中日關系會繼續惡化嗎?
  • He held that this would only cause the situation to deteriorate further.他認為,這只會使局勢更加惡化。
28 preservation glnzYU     
n.保護,維護,保存,保留,保持
參考例句:
  • The police are responsible for the preservation of law and order.警察負責維持法律與秩序。
  • The picture is in an excellent state of preservation.這幅畫保存得極為完好。
29 acclaimed 90ebf966469bbbcc8cacff5bee4678fe     
adj.受人歡迎的
參考例句:
  • They acclaimed him as the best writer of the year. 他們稱贊他為當年的最佳作者。
  • Confuscius is acclaimed as a great thinker. 孔子被贊譽為偉大的思想家。
30 remarkable 8Vbx6     
adj.顯著的,異常的,非凡的,值得注意的
參考例句:
  • She has made remarkable headway in her writing skills.她在寫作技巧方面有了長足進步。
  • These cars are remarkable for the quietness of their engines.這些汽車因發動機沒有噪音而不同凡響。
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